Who discovered the nuclear number

Beryllium isotopes

12 isotopes or nuclides are known of the element beryllium, of which only one - 9Be - is stable. This makes beryllium a pure element and the only monoisotopic chemical element with an even number of protons in the atomic nucleus.

The atomic mass of beryllium is 9.0121831 (5) u.

 

Naturally occurring beryllium isotopes

Beryllium-9 is the only stable isotope found on earth. As radioisotopes of cosmic origin, there are the smallest traces of radioactive nuclides 7Be and 10Be demonstrable.

 

The beryllium-11 atom is one of the so-called halo nuclei; it consists of 4 protons and 6 neutrons in the nucleus and a weakly bound neutron outside this nucleus; one speaks of a 1-neutron halo [8].

 

Isotope table: beryllium

isotope
nuclide
ZA.NSurnameAtomic mass
[Core mass]
{Mass excess}
Spin I.
(h / 2π)
μA-nuk
123456789
5Be451Beryllium-55,039870 (2150) et al
[5.0376757 u]
{37.13867 MeV}
6Be462Beryllium-66.019726 (6) et al
[6,0175317 u]
{18.37465 MeV}
0+
7Be473Beryllium-77.01692872 (8) u
[7,0147344 u]
{15.769 MeV}
3/2--1,399280(4)
8Be484Beryllium-88.00530510 (4) and
[8.0031108 u]
{4.94167 MeV}
0+8B.
8Li
9Be495Beryllium-99.012183050 (82) u
[9.0099887 u]
{11.34844 MeV}
3/2--1,177430(5)9Li
10Be4106Beryllium-1010.01353469 (9) and
[10.0113404 u]
{12.60748 MeV}
0+11Li
11Be4117Beryllium-1111.02166108 (25) u
[11.0194668 u]
{20.17717 MeV}
1/2+-1,6816(8)11Li
12Be4128Beryllium-1212.0269221 (2) and
[12.0247278 u]
{25.07777 MeV}
0+
12mBe4128Beryllium-12m12.0269221 (2) and
[12.0247278 u]
{25.07777 MeV}
0+
13Be4139Beryllium-13130, 36135 (11) et al
[13.0334559 u]
{33.20793 MeV}
(1/2-)
14Be41410Beryllium-1414.04289 (14) and
[14.0406957 u]
{39.95178 MeV}
0+
15Be41511Beryllium-1515.05349 (18) et al
[15.0512957 u]
{49.82561 MeV}
(5/2+)
16Be41612Beryllium-1616.06167 (18) et al
[16.0594757 u]
{57.44523 MeV}
0+

 

 

isotopeDecay (radioactive decay)AEMore
Half-lifeType of decayproportion ofenergyinfo
1101112131415
Be-5p to 3Hey100 %AL
Be-65,0(3) × 10-21 s2p to 4Hey
α

4.288 MeV
AL
Be-753.22 (6) daysEE too 7Li100 %0.86189 (7) MeVAL
Be-88,19(37) × 10-17 sα to 4Hey100 %0.09184 (4) MeVAL
Be-9stableAL
Be-101,51(4) × 106 Yearsβ- to 10B.100 %0.55688 (8) MeVAL
Be-1113.76 (7) sβ- to 11B.
β-, α to 7Li
β-, p
97,1 %
2,9 %
0,00083(9) %
11.50946 (24) MeV

AL
Be-1221.46 (5) msβ- to 12B.
β-, n to 11B.
99,5 %
0,50(3) %
11.7084 (23) MeV
8.3387 (19) MeV
AL
Be-12m230 (8) nsIso to 12Be100 %2.251 (1) MeV2.251 (1) MeV
Be-132,7(18) × 10-21 sn 12Be?AL
Be-144.35 (17) msβ- to 14B.
β-, n to 13B.
β-, 2n to 12B.
14 %
81(4) %
5(2) %
16.29 (13) MeV
15.32 (13) MeV
AL
Be-157,9(27) × 10-22 sn 14Beapprox. 100%AL
Be-166,5(13) × 10-22 s2n 14Be20.42 MeVAL

 

Explanations for the individual columns:

1 - symbol with nucleon number.
2 - Z = Number of protons (atomic number).
3 - mass number A..
4 - N = Number of neutrons.
5 - designation of the beryllium isotope; possibly common names.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the beryllium isotope (isotope mass including electrons) and in square brackets the mass of the atomic nucleus (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess (mass excess) is given in MeV.
7 - nuclear spin I., Unit: h / 2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μlike.
9 - Starting nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual starting nuclides (parent nuclides, parent nuclides). The corresponding decay modes can be found in the data of the respective starting nuclide.
10 - decay: half-lives of the beryllium isotope with a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds.
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; ß- = Beta-minus decay with electron emission; EE = electron capture; ß+ = Positron emission; ε = ß+ and / or EE; Iso = isomerism transition; CZ = cluster decay; SZ = spontaneous decay.
12 - Disintegration: proportion of disintegration in percent (%).
13 - decay: energy of decay; Particle energy related to the type of decay.
14 - AE = excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = further levels, so-called adopted levels (link to external data [1]).

Other:

() - Numbers in brackets: Uncertainty regarding the representation of the spread of the specified value.
~ - Theoretical values ​​or systematic trends.
- unlisted-: nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature, but for whatever reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables, because their discovery e.g. B. has not confirmed.

 

NMR-active beryllium nuclides

nuclide
proportion of
Spin I.
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ / μN
Gyromagnetic
relationship
107 wheel T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonance-
frequency
v0 at 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. *
9Be
100 %
3/2-
-1,177430(5)- 3,9575+ 5,288(38)5,98420,01388
0,7028

*) based on 1H = 1,000

 

Radiation protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018), the following values ​​(columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of beryllium radionuclides:

nuclideExemption limitsHRQ thresholdOFKDaughter nuclidesHalf-life
Be-7107 Bq10 Bq / g1 TBq100 Bq / cm253.2 days
Be-10106 Bq100 Bq / g1000 TBq1,6 × 106 Years

(HRQ = highly radioactive sources; OFK = surface contamination)

 

Core isobaric nuclides of beryllium

Atomic nuclei isobaric to the beryllium nuclides can be found in the respective table row; Z = atomic number; A = nucleon number (mass number).

Z:12345678910
A.HHeyLiBeB.C.NOF.No
55H5Hey5Li5Be
66H6Hey6Li6Be6B.
77Hey7Li7Be7B.
88Hey8Li8Be8B.8C.
99Hey9Li9Be9B.9C.
1010Hey10Li10Be10B.10C.10N
1111Li11Be11B.11C.11N
1212Li12Be12B.12C.12N12O
1313Be13B.13C.13N13O
1414Be14B.14C.14N14O14F.
1515Be15B.15C.15N15O15F.
1616Be16B.16C.16N16O16F.16No

 

Nuclear isotonic nuclides of beryllium

The nuclides isotonic to the beryllium nuclei are in the respective table line; N = number of neutrons.


123456789101112
2H3H4H5H6H7H
3Hey4Hey5Hey6Hey7Hey8Hey9Hey10Hey
4Li5Li6Li7Li8Li9Li10Li11Li12Li
5Be6Be7Be8Be9Be10Be11Be12Be13Be14Be15Be16Be
6B.7B.8B.9B.10B.11B.12B.13B.14B.15B.16B.17B.
8C.9C.10C.11C.12C.13C.14C.15C.16C.17C.18C.
10N11N12N13N14N15N16N17N18N19N
12O13O14O15O16O17O18O19O20O
14F.15F.16F.17F.18F.19F.20F.21F.
15No16No17No18No19No20No21No22No
18N / A19N / A20N / A21N / A22N / A23N / A
19Mg20Mg21Mg22Mg23Mg24Mg
21Al22Al23Al24Al25Al
22Si23Si24Si25Si26Si
24P25P26P27P
26S.27S.28S.
28Cl29Cl
30Ar

 

Literature and Notes

Properties of the beryllium isotopes

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al .: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016 / j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Beryllium: nuclear magnetic properties - 9Be-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016 / j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080 / 00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080 / 00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

Further sources:

[8] - Isotope frequencies, atomic masses and isotope masses: See under the respective keyword.

[9] - NN:
Atomic nucleus with a halo.
In: Scientists measure one-neutron halo with lasers for the first time, Internetchemie News, (2009), DOI https://www.internetchemie.info/news/2009/feb09/beryllium-atomkern-mit-heiligenschein.php.

 


Category: Chemical elements

last changes at 05.07.2020.

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