# Who discovered the nuclear number

## Beryllium isotopes

12 isotopes or nuclides are known of the element beryllium, of which only one - ^{9}Be - is stable. This makes beryllium a pure element and the only monoisotopic chemical element with an even number of protons in the atomic nucleus.

The atomic mass of beryllium is 9.0121831 (5) u.

### Naturally occurring beryllium isotopes

Beryllium-9 is the only stable isotope found on earth. As radioisotopes of cosmic origin, there are the smallest traces of radioactive nuclides ^{7}Be and ^{10}Be demonstrable.

The beryllium-11 atom is one of the so-called halo nuclei; it consists of 4 protons and 6 neutrons in the nucleus and a weakly bound neutron outside this nucleus; one speaks of a 1-neutron halo [8].

### Isotope table: beryllium

isotope nuclide | Z | A. | N | Surname | Atomic mass [Core mass] {Mass excess} | Spin I.(h / 2π) | μ | A-nuk |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 |

^{5}Be | 4 | 5 | 1 | Beryllium-5 | 5,039870 (2150) et al [5.0376757 u] {37.13867 MeV} | |||

^{6}Be | 4 | 6 | 2 | Beryllium-6 | 6.019726 (6) et al [6,0175317 u] {18.37465 MeV} | 0+ | ||

^{7}Be | 4 | 7 | 3 | Beryllium-7 | 7.01692872 (8) u [7,0147344 u] {15.769 MeV} | 3/2- | -1,399280(4) | |

^{8}Be | 4 | 8 | 4 | Beryllium-8 | 8.00530510 (4) and [8.0031108 u] {4.94167 MeV} | 0+ | ^{8}B.^{8}Li | |

^{9}Be | 4 | 9 | 5 | Beryllium-9 | 9.012183050 (82) u [9.0099887 u] {11.34844 MeV} | 3/2- | -1,177430(5) | ^{9}Li |

^{10}Be | 4 | 10 | 6 | Beryllium-10 | 10.01353469 (9) and [10.0113404 u] {12.60748 MeV} | 0+ | ^{11}Li | |

^{11}Be | 4 | 11 | 7 | Beryllium-11 | 11.02166108 (25) u [11.0194668 u] {20.17717 MeV} | 1/2+ | -1,6816(8) | ^{11}Li |

^{12}Be | 4 | 12 | 8 | Beryllium-12 | 12.0269221 (2) and [12.0247278 u] {25.07777 MeV} | 0+ | ||

^{12m}Be | 4 | 12 | 8 | Beryllium-12m | 12.0269221 (2) and [12.0247278 u] {25.07777 MeV} | 0+ | ||

^{13}Be | 4 | 13 | 9 | Beryllium-13 | 130, 36135 (11) et al [13.0334559 u] {33.20793 MeV} | (1/2-) | ||

^{14}Be | 4 | 14 | 10 | Beryllium-14 | 14.04289 (14) and [14.0406957 u] {39.95178 MeV} | 0+ | ||

^{15}Be | 4 | 15 | 11 | Beryllium-15 | 15.05349 (18) et al [15.0512957 u] {49.82561 MeV} | (5/2+) | ||

^{16}Be | 4 | 16 | 12 | Beryllium-16 | 16.06167 (18) et al [16.0594757 u] {57.44523 MeV} | 0+ |

isotope | Decay (radioactive decay) | AE | More | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Half-life | Type of decay | proportion of | energy | info | ||

1 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 |

Be-5 | p to ^{3}Hey | 100 % | AL | |||

Be-6 | 5,0(3) × 10^{-21} s | 2p to ^{4}Heyα | 4.288 MeV | AL | ||

Be-7 | 53.22 (6) days | EE too ^{7}Li | 100 % | 0.86189 (7) MeV | AL | |

Be-8 | 8,19(37) × 10^{-17} s | α to ^{4}Hey | 100 % | 0.09184 (4) MeV | AL | |

Be-9 | stable | AL | ||||

Be-10 | 1,51(4) × 10^{6} Years | β^{-} to ^{10}B. | 100 % | 0.55688 (8) MeV | AL | |

Be-11 | 13.76 (7) s | β^{-} to ^{11}B.β ^{-}, α to ^{7}Liβ ^{-}, p | 97,1 % 2,9 % 0,00083(9) % | 11.50946 (24) MeV | AL | |

Be-12 | 21.46 (5) ms | β^{-} to ^{12}B.β ^{-}, n to ^{11}B. | 99,5 % 0,50(3) % | 11.7084 (23) MeV 8.3387 (19) MeV | AL | |

Be-12m | 230 (8) ns | Iso to ^{12}Be | 100 % | 2.251 (1) MeV | 2.251 (1) MeV | |

Be-13 | 2,7(18) × 10^{-21} s | n ^{12}Be | ? | AL | ||

Be-14 | 4.35 (17) ms | β^{-} to ^{14}B.β ^{-}, n to ^{13}B.β ^{-}, 2n to ^{12}B. | 14 % 81(4) % 5(2) % | 16.29 (13) MeV 15.32 (13) MeV | AL | |

Be-15 | 7,9(27) × 10^{-22} s | n ^{14}Be | approx. 100% | AL | ||

Be-16 | 6,5(13) × 10^{-22} s | 2n ^{14}Be | 20.42 MeV | AL |

Explanations for the individual columns:

1 - symbol with nucleon number.

2 - *Z* = Number of protons (atomic number).

3 - mass number *A.*.

4 - *N* = Number of neutrons.

5 - designation of the beryllium isotope; possibly common names.

6 - Relative atomic mass of the beryllium isotope (isotope mass including electrons) and in square brackets the mass of the atomic nucleus (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to ^{12}C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess (mass excess) is given in MeV.

7 - nuclear spin *I.*, Unit: h / 2π.

8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μ_{like}.

9 - Starting nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual starting nuclides (parent nuclides, parent nuclides). The corresponding decay modes can be found in the data of the respective starting nuclide.

10 - decay: half-lives of the beryllium isotope with a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds.

11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; ß^{-} = Beta-minus decay with electron emission; EE = electron capture; ß^{+} = Positron emission; ε = ß^{+} and / or EE; Iso = isomerism transition; CZ = cluster decay; SZ = spontaneous decay.

12 - Disintegration: proportion of disintegration in percent (%).

13 - decay: energy of decay; Particle energy related to the type of decay.

14 - AE = excitation energy for metastable nuclei.

15 - Other information and notes: AL = further levels, so-called adopted levels (link to external data [1]).

Other:

() - Numbers in brackets: Uncertainty regarding the representation of the spread of the specified value.

~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.

- unlisted-: nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature, but for whatever reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables, because their discovery e.g. B. has not confirmed.

### NMR-active beryllium nuclides

nuclide proportion of Spin I. | Nuclear magnetic moment μ / μ _{N} | Gyromagnetic relationship 10 ^{7} wheel T^{-1} s^{-1} | Quadrupole moment Q fm ^{-2} | Resonance- frequency v_{0} at 1 T | Relative sensitivity H_{0} = const.v_{0} = const. * |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

^{9}Be100 % 3/2- | -1,177430(5) | - 3,9575 | + 5,288(38) | 5,9842 | 0,01388 0,7028 |

*) based on ^{1}H = 1,000

### Radiation protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of beryllium radionuclides:

nuclide | Exemption limits | HRQ threshold | OFK | Daughter nuclides | Half-life | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Be-7 | 10^{7} Bq | 10 Bq / g | 1 TBq | 100 Bq / cm^{2} | 53.2 days | |

Be-10 | 10^{6} Bq | 100 Bq / g | 1000 TBq | 1,6 × 10^{6} Years |

(HRQ = highly radioactive sources; OFK = surface contamination)

### Core isobaric nuclides of beryllium

Atomic nuclei isobaric to the beryllium nuclides can be found in the respective table row; Z = atomic number; A = nucleon number (mass number).

Z: | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

A. | H | Hey | Li | Be | B. | C. | N | O | F. | No |

5 | ^{5}H | ^{5}Hey | ^{5}Li | ^{5}Be | ||||||

6 | ^{6}H | ^{6}Hey | ^{6}Li | ^{6}Be | ^{6}B. | |||||

7 | ^{7}Hey | ^{7}Li | ^{7}Be | ^{7}B. | ||||||

8 | ^{8}Hey | ^{8}Li | ^{8}Be | ^{8}B. | ^{8}C. | |||||

9 | ^{9}Hey | ^{9}Li | ^{9}Be | ^{9}B. | ^{9}C. | |||||

10 | ^{10}Hey | ^{10}Li | ^{10}Be | ^{10}B. | ^{10}C. | ^{10}N | ||||

11 | ^{11}Li | ^{11}Be | ^{11}B. | ^{11}C. | ^{11}N | |||||

12 | ^{12}Li | ^{12}Be | ^{12}B. | ^{12}C. | ^{12}N | ^{12}O | ||||

13 | ^{13}Be | ^{13}B. | ^{13}C. | ^{13}N | ^{13}O | |||||

14 | ^{14}Be | ^{14}B. | ^{14}C. | ^{14}N | ^{14}O | ^{14}F. | ||||

15 | ^{15}Be | ^{15}B. | ^{15}C. | ^{15}N | ^{15}O | ^{15}F. | ||||

16 | ^{16}Be | ^{16}B. | ^{16}C. | ^{16}N | ^{16}O | ^{16}F. | ^{16}No |

### Nuclear isotonic nuclides of beryllium

The nuclides isotonic to the beryllium nuclei are in the respective table line; N = number of neutrons.

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

^{2}H | ^{3}H | ^{4}H | ^{5}H | ^{6}H | ^{7}H | ||||||

^{3}Hey | ^{4}Hey | ^{5}Hey | ^{6}Hey | ^{7}Hey | ^{8}Hey | ^{9}Hey | ^{10}Hey | ||||

^{4}Li | ^{5}Li | ^{6}Li | ^{7}Li | ^{8}Li | ^{9}Li | ^{10}Li | ^{11}Li | ^{12}Li | |||

^{5}Be | ^{6}Be | ^{7}Be | ^{8}Be | ^{9}Be | ^{10}Be | ^{11}Be | ^{12}Be | ^{13}Be | ^{14}Be | ^{15}Be | ^{16}Be |

^{6}B. | ^{7}B. | ^{8}B. | ^{9}B. | ^{10}B. | ^{11}B. | ^{12}B. | ^{13}B. | ^{14}B. | ^{15}B. | ^{16}B. | ^{17}B. |

^{8}C. | ^{9}C. | ^{10}C. | ^{11}C. | ^{12}C. | ^{13}C. | ^{14}C. | ^{15}C. | ^{16}C. | ^{17}C. | ^{18}C. | |

^{10}N | ^{11}N | ^{12}N | ^{13}N | ^{14}N | ^{15}N | ^{16}N | ^{17}N | ^{18}N | ^{19}N | ||

^{12}O | ^{13}O | ^{14}O | ^{15}O | ^{16}O | ^{17}O | ^{18}O | ^{19}O | ^{20}O | |||

^{14}F. | ^{15}F. | ^{16}F. | ^{17}F. | ^{18}F. | ^{19}F. | ^{20}F. | ^{21}F. | ||||

^{15}No | ^{16}No | ^{17}No | ^{18}No | ^{19}No | ^{20}No | ^{21}No | ^{22}No | ||||

^{18}N / A | ^{19}N / A | ^{20}N / A | ^{21}N / A | ^{22}N / A | ^{23}N / A | ||||||

^{19}Mg | ^{20}Mg | ^{21}Mg | ^{22}Mg | ^{23}Mg | ^{24}Mg | ||||||

^{21}Al | ^{22}Al | ^{23}Al | ^{24}Al | ^{25}Al | |||||||

^{22}Si | ^{23}Si | ^{24}Si | ^{25}Si | ^{26}Si | |||||||

^{24}P | ^{25}P | ^{26}P | ^{27}P | ||||||||

^{26}S. | ^{27}S. | ^{28}S. | |||||||||

^{28}Cl | ^{29}Cl | ||||||||||

^{30}Ar |

### Literature and Notes

**Properties of the beryllium isotopes**

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al .: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016 / j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

**Beryllium: nuclear magnetic properties - ^{9}Be-NMR **

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016 / j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080 / 00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080 / 00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

**Further sources:**

[8] - **Isotope frequencies, atomic masses and isotope masses:** See under the respective keyword.

[9] - NN:**Atomic nucleus with a halo**.

In: Scientists measure one-neutron halo with lasers for the first time, Internetchemie News, (2009), DOI https://www.internetchemie.info/news/2009/feb09/beryllium-atomkern-mit-heiligenschein.php.

**Category: Chemical elements**

**last changes at **05.07.2020.

**Permalink**: https://www.internetchemie.info/chemische-elemente/beryllium-isotope.php

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