What is the UCAS approval
Access to study in Belgium is through an application directly to the university and requires a Belgian Abitur or an examination that proves the university entrance qualification. If this Abitur was taken in the other part of Belgium (Flanders or Wallonia), a language certificate must also be provided. For students from other European countries, their foreign Abitur is recognized, but they have to pass a language test in Belgium before they can enroll. The tuition fees are € 726 per year (University of Liège). Belgian universities actively recruit students by presenting themselves to school leavers on university fairs. There are no entrance exams at Belgian universities; selection takes place through difficult exams in the first few years.
Until recently, access to law studies throughout Germany was organized centrally by the Central Office for the Allocation of Study Places (ZVS). Since 2001, students have been admitted directly through the universities. So you have to apply directly to the university of your choice, which decides on admission according to its own selection criteria. In addition to certain clauses for cases of social hardship, the Abitur grade is particularly decisive for admission (e.g. criteria of the University of Regensburg). But there are also universities at which there is no longer a numerus clausus and each applicant receives a study place.
Those interested in an undergraduate course, i.e. first-year students, must apply via the central university place allocation system UCAS (Universities and Colleges Admissions Service). The UCAS is the mediator, the selection is made by the universities themselves. There is no legally enforceable entitlement to a study place. Many universities require 2, better 3 A-Levels with "A" or "B" as well as a positive assessment from the school principal. Prestigious universities such as Oxford, Cambridge, LSE and Warwick require an "AAA" or "AAB" degree. So the requirements are high. Many and above all respected universities conduct interviews with the applicants. Oxford and Cambridge also have a special entrance exam for which candidates must also write essays.
The UCAS manual and the official application form can be requested directly from UCAS from July 1st every year. As a rule, applications should be submitted to UCAS by December 15th. Applicants can specify up to 8 universities. Applicants will then receive their acceptances or rejections in the spring. Unsuccessful applicants have the option to take part in the "clearing" process. The remaining study places are allocated according to a certain procedure. For Oxford and Cambridge (which are not connected to the UCAS system), the special feature is that simultaneous applications via UCAS in the same year are not permitted. The application must also be received by October 15th.
A prerequisite for attending a Finnish university is a final examination at the Finnish secondary school that is comparable to the Abitur. Universities in Finland can choose their students themselves and place entrance exams, the results of which, together with the high school grades, form the basis for the selection of students. The entrance exam already deals with legal issues and the students spend months preparing for them. In return, you will receive a list of legal literature of approx. 800 pages, which is required for the examination. The selection is very tough and, for example, at the University of Helsinki only about 14% of applicants are admitted to law studies. Therefore, there are preparatory courses and private tutorials for the entrance exams. Most candidates take several attempts to get to a law faculty and try to bridge the time with jobs. One consequence of the high entry barriers in Finland is a very low number of dropouts among Finnish law students.
There are no tuition fees in Finland, only a social contribution of around € 60 is levied, which, however, includes health insurance.
Law is taught at three universities in Finland: the University of Helsinki, the University of Turku and the University of Lapland in Rovaniemi.
A prerequisite for studying law is the Abitur (bac). Alternatively, every French person aged 17 and over can acquire the “capacité en droit” in a two-year course (usually in evening courses) without any special qualifications, which also entitles them to study law. Those who pass the exam with 15/20 points can then start straight into the second year of study .
There is no central system for allocating study places, so you have to apply directly to the university. In this case, however, every applicant is usually accepted without a preselection. There are no university fees, only registration fees of around € 150 are charged.
The following 5 universities offer law studies: Trinity College, NUI Galway, University College Dublin, University College Cork and University of Limerick. Access to university studies is regulated by the "central applications office", a government body. The study places are mainly awarded according to the grades in the leaving certificate, similar to the German numerus clausus system.
The entrance requirement for studying in Italy is a qualification from a secondary school corresponding to the Abitur, but the technical diploma, e.g. from technical and business high schools, also gives full access to the universities. Officially, no tuition fees are charged, but enrollment fees of around € 500. At private universities, fees of up to € 3,000 are charged, depending on the parents' monthly income.
Applicants must have a school leaving certificate qualifying them for university entrance. Then they apply to the individual universities that the students choose with selection tests. However, in the course of a reform, it will soon only depend on the "Abitur" grade, similar to the German "numerus clausus".
The entry requirement for studying in Luxembourg is the "diplôme de fin d'études secondaires" or a comparable school leaving certificate from other countries, which must be recognized by the Ministry of Education. But there are no problems for the German Abitur.
Link: Application for matriculation
In order to be allowed to attend a Dutch university, one needs a qualification from a secondary school, similar to the German Abitur. If you want to study as a German in the Netherlands, your Abitur is recognized.
Tuition fees of € 1,445 per year have to be paid.The admission requirement for a regular course of study at Austrian universities is the school leaving examination (Matura).
To get started, an additional examination in Latin is necessary in addition to the Matura, if Latin has not already been completed in the upper level to the extent of at least 12 hours per week. However, the Latinum can also be made up during the course of studies.
Access is also obtained through a foreign certificate if this has been nostrified by the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, i.e. declared to be equivalent to an Austrian certificate. Likewise, the completion of at least three years of study at a recognized foreign post-secondary educational institution also provides the general university entrance qualification. The basic requirement is proof of sufficient German language skills.There are no admission restrictions for certain fields of study in Austria.
In addition, without the Matura, there is the possibility of obtaining a subject-specific qualification to study. The prerequisites for admission to the so-called university entrance qualification examination (SBP) are possession of Austrian citizenship or belonging to a group of persons who are equivalent under study law in Germany, in principle the completion of the 22nd year of age and proof of successful professional or extra-professional training in law (§ 2 para .1 and 3 StudBerG).
Link: Admission to Austrian universities
Applicants must have a general university entrance qualification. There is the option of either choosing a regular course or opting for distance learning, where events only take place on the weekends.
Applicants for a regular study place have to take an entrance examination. This consists mainly of knowledge questions about the history of Poland. In addition, the applicant's logical understanding is tested. The study places will then be distributed among the best performing applicants.
There is also the option of evening or distance learning. In contrast to the regular course, this course is subject to a fee. An entrance exam is not required for this.
The Abitur grade is irrelevant when applying for a study place. However, this should change with the reform of the Polish Abitur regulations, which align the Abitur in Polish schools in the 2004/2005 examination year.
Regarding the ordinance of the Polish Ministry of Culture on the new Abitur regulations from 07.01.2004
Universities are autonomous in the selection of students and the admission requirements therefore differ. Basically, however, a very good school leaving certificate (AAAAB) is necessary. As in England, the application runs through UCAS.
Admission restrictions have existed in Sweden since 1977. Not every student gets a place with the first application. However, the selection for the 2nd and 3rd application is considerably milder, so that in fact almost everyone gets a place sooner or later.
The entry requirement for studying at Swiss universities is a so-called previous qualification, i.e. primarily federal maturities, which is equivalent to the German Abitur. In addition, there is a whole list of other recognized educational qualifications, such as technical college degrees or degrees from certain other types of school, due to the canton's peculiarities. Foreign school-leaving qualifications are also recognized, provided they are considered to be of general education, which is the case for the German Abitur. The individual criteria can be found under this link.
The primary requirement for access to the university is the "bachillerato", which corresponds to the German Abitur, or a comparable qualification.
In order to be able to enroll at a Spanish university, the applicant must also go through an examination procedure ("selectividad"). The aim of the "selectividad" is to check the suitability of applicants for university studies with regard to their academic maturity. First, it examines the applicant's general level of education in terms of understanding concepts, using language, and the ability to analyze problems. The second part of the examination deals in general with the subject-specific knowledge of the applicant. If the applicant successfully completes both parts of the examination, he has qualified for the university course.
Since there are very many places to study in law and the admission requirements are relatively low, almost every applicant also receives a place. The universities charge fees for the study.
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