How did Mehmet succeed in 1453
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Fatih Sultan Mehmed II was the 7th Sultan of the Ottomans and ruled from 1451 to 1481. He assumed the title "Fatih" (Conqueror) after he had conquered Constantinople.
Mehmed II was the son of Sultan Murat II and his wife Huma Hatun and he was the father of five children (daughter: Gevrehana Sultana; sons: Mustafa, Bayezit II, Cem, Korkut). At the time of the Ottomans it had one of the most conquests.
Mehmed II was considered a successful statesman and above all a military leader, trained by the then famous Islamic scholar Akschamsuddin (Akşemseddin). He reportedly spoke seven languages fluently and was considered a promoter of literature and science. He had Byzantine philosophical and theological works translated into Arabic.
His main political goal was the elimination of Byzantium and the conquest of Constantinople. The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire fell on May 29, 1453 (Mehmed II was only 23 years old) and immediately became the new capital of the Ottoman Empire as Istanbul. Since then, Mehmed II has been nicknamed "Fatih" (Arabic: conqueror).
In addition to this victory, he expanded the Ottoman territory to include large territories in Europe such as Serbia, Greece (Morea), Wallachia, Trebizond, Bosnia, Karaman and Albania. He even advanced as far as Italy and took the city of Otranto, which, however, was given up again after his death.
Sultan Mehmed II strengthened the Ottoman fleet with the aim of challenging the Venetian maritime hegemony in trade, which was also successful. To this end, by conquering the Crimean peninsula (1475 AD), he made the Black Sea an Ottoman inland sea.
In 1478 Mehmed II issued a Ferman and thus confirmed freedom of belief to clergy in Bosnia after the conquest of the country.
In addition to his military conquests, he introduced a centralized and effective administration of the empire. He also published a written collection of laws for the "family of the Ottomans" [kanunname-i aali osman]. More than 300 mosques, 57 madrasas and 59 baths were built under his rule. The Topkapi Palace in Istanbul became the new seat of power. He also set about rebuilding the Hagia Sophia.
Mehmed II died on May 3, 1481 in Gebze. He was buried in his own shrine in the cemetery of the Fatih Mosque in Istanbul. He left his successors with a cruel law to legitimize fratricide. His successor was his son Bayezit II.
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