What are premises and conclusions

Overview

Theories of argumentation are not clearly defined
What is understood by argument and argumentation is very different in scientific presentations, with all fundamental agreement.

And something else It means something else when we use these terms in everyday life.

We therefore cannot and do not want to clearly define ourselves here. The context in which we use the terms must, in addition to repeated explicit explanations, provide information about what is meant in each case. This is unsatisfactory, but it can hardly be done any other way if you don't want to get stuck with "translation problems" all the time.

Central to the logical argumentation analysis: argument and conclusion

For the ▪ logical argumentation analysis, the two terms are particularly important Argument and conclusion stand out from each other.

The logical concept of the argument comprises a set of sentences or assertions that are related to one another in such a way that one of the assertions takes on the role of conclusion, while the other assertions that provide reasons for this assertion act as premises.
Both together - that is, conclusion and premises - are called an argument in this case. The fact that in particular the term Conclusion is equated with conclusion or is seen as a synonym for the term thesis.
However, this is only the case to a limited extent. Because not every conclusion fulfills the condition of novelty and not every thesis is - from a formal-logical point of view - a conclusion (see Göttert 1978, pp. 2 ff.)

The everyday use of the term argument however, limits its importance more strongly. Argument here is a rationale, aJustification for a claim (Thesis).

However, since an argument can also consist of a single premise from a logical perspective, individual premises are referred to as arguments even in the logical argumentation analysis. (see Bayer 1999, p.87)

Argument, premises and conclusion

A argument consists of one or more from the point of view of logic Premises and one Conclusion.
Premises are assertions that provide reasons for the alleged conclusion (conclusion / thesis).

In the form of the so-called three-step syllogism, an argument can be represented using logical laws as in the following example:

All people have the same human rights.

Klaus is a person.

► Klaus owns the human rights.

In the Everyday argumentation is often formulated as follows:

Because everyone has the same human rights, Klaus also has these rights.

In addition to other variants, the following statement is also possible:

Klaus is a person, that's why he also has human rights.

The statement "Klaus owns the human rights." is used as a thesis, the statement "All people have the same human rights." is linked to the thesis with a conjunction or a pronominal adverb as an argument.

This use of the term is based on the elements of the so-called ▪ simple and ▪ extended argumentation, which, similar to the ▪ five-sentence, aim to provide help with the formulation and therefore offer a ▪ general argumentation scheme (argumentation circle).

Of particular importance for the argumentation analysis is the distinction between ▪ the context of discovery and reasoning.

Gert Egle, last edited on: 14.06.2020