What is an example of an adulterer

Definition:
Entering into socially not tolerated extramarital relationships.

Extramarital sexual relationship between two persons, at least one of whom is married to another [Murdock 1949: 261]. There are a wide variety of emic definitions of adultery.



To the overarching termRemarks:
These are not all sexual relationships. In some societies, side-by-side sexual relationships with certain categories of people are allowed. Sexual relations of married persons with persons other than the legal spouse. In many societies, such relationships are forbidden and severely sanctioned, depending on the nature of the marriage relationship itself. In some societies, sexual fidelity has a high priority, in others it is of secondary importance. The former is especially found in societies with an ideology of male control over female sexuality and reproductive health. In other societies, however, neither adultery nor biological paternity are given great importance. Often there is not even a monolithic concept of adultery in one and the same society, but a number of different emic terms or grades of "adultery" [Macmillan Dict. of Anthr .: 5].

The often overlooked fact that different, often mutually exclusive conceptions of adultery can occur within one and the same society is evident from the fact that in our society certain representatives of the Church take the theological position of Augustine, according to which even unchaste thoughts are considered adultery ( personal conception of adultery), while state legislation reduces adultery to the performance of the sexual act (immissio) and thus to a narrow definition of marriage as a community of procreation (right to the partner's body for mutual use of the sexual organs).

Example: Toba-Batak (North Sumatra, Indonesia)
"Adultery" is understood by the patrilineal Toba-Batak (from the man's perspective) to mean taking possession of a woman who is still under the authority of her husband or her lineage of origin. The severity of the "adultery" corresponds with whether the woman

  1. the fiancée of another man (here the offer of the bride's gift alone is sufficient!) or
  2. a widow who has not married a man in the family circle of her deceased husband and has not yet been dissociated from his patriotic lineage, or
  3. a woman who has not had regular intercourse with her husband for a long time and lives in a state of separation and is therefore called "approaching adultery", or
  4. is a woman who has regular intercourse with her husband. The latter is adultery in the narrower sense and is punished with the heaviest sanctions.

Further distinctions between adultery relate to the existence or non-existence of offspring, whereby adultery with a woman who already has children is more important than with a young woman who is still childless. There are separate emic terms for all of these different forms and stages of adultery [Luke 1990: 461, 205f].

Example: Samo Manu`a
The cult of virginity (as an expression of a high degree of control over female sexuality and reproductivity) in connection with an elaborate ranking system led to a high evaluation of marital fidelity and severe penalties for the crime of adultery: In contrast to Margaret Mead's assertion [1928] that adultery occurs Derek Freeman [1983] stated that adultery in Samoa is both a serious crime and carries heavy penalties sanctioned (killing, mutilation, banishment and land confiscation, etc.). Example: Cayapa Indians of Ecuador
Considered a despicable and sinful act. The punishment, however, is far milder than incest. The prevailing belief is that in every adultery the woman plays the active role. Age is considered a mitigating factor so that a young single woman who commits adultery with a married man does not have to be punished. It is said that with her behavior she expresses that she is looking for a man and that she should get married. One is therefore often looking for a husband for her (Altschuler, Milton in: Marshall, Donald S./Suggs, Robert C. (ed.): HumanSexual Behavior. Variations in the Ethnographic Spectrum. N.Y., London, Basic Books 1971: 46f) Example: Basongye (Basonge, Bala) from Zaire / Belgian Congo
The Basongye / Bala use the same term (EKUP, pl. MAKUPI) to denote the concubine and adultery. Adultery is often a source of argument. Always the man is considered aggressive. Caused and active part considered: "Women could never force a man to commit adultery". Adultery with married women is considered by the married. Men considered more dangerous than those with blatant girls. Sanctions: In the 19th century the betrayed wives are said to have avenged themselves by reporting their husband to the "owner" of the adulteress. The situation could become very serious, especially when the adulterer was a "common man", but the "owner" of his accomplice was a respected person of high standing. The betrayed husband could then, without fear of anything, kill his wife's lover. If a man lives apart from his wife for a year or more and finds upon his return that his wife is pregnant, the newborn is referred to as "somebody's child" (MWANA A SANGA); however, it is regarded as the husband's child and is treated as his child by the husband. The Basongye / Bala men say that whenever a man leaves his wife alone for so long, his wife is sure to commit adultery. The Bala women are said to differ from the European women mainly in that the latter can live alone for a long time without committing adultery. However, if the child from such a tolerated extramarital relationship suffers a fatal accident, the woman must tell her spouse the name of the (biological) father; this then leads to a divine judgment: the husband creates a special belt from the bundle of ELALA palm leaves, which the reported father puts on; then he stands over the body of the dead child. If he is really guilty, all his clothes should fall off his body and he should stand naked; if he is innocent, the bodies remain on his body. If the husband sees that the defendant's clothes are falling off, he is free to take revenge on him (today he will take him to court). Apparently there are certain "rules of the game" for adultery among the Basongye / Bala. For example, a man who (during the Belgian colonial period) had been fined 700 francs and sentenced to 2 weeks in prison was very angry and upset. After his release he threatened to kill the spouse or his wife or both of them because he had not been told that the woman was married, which was not "fair" given the fact that he was a stranger in this village be. Adultery can be cited by men, but not by women, as a sufficient reason for divorce. Some men "explain" this by saying that women give Gonnorhoe to men who commit adultery. If a woman gets away with her lover, she is considered divorced. When she comes back later, some cases will resume but others will not. The child born of the bond with the loved one will be considered that of the husband, but it is likely that it will not be treated well. According to the Basongye / Bala, the Belgian colonial government would have changed a lot here: the lover / adulterer must take responsibility for the child he has conceived. Men advocate this by saying that "the Belgians taught us not to seduce other men's wives" (Merriam in: Marshall, Donald S./Suggs, Robert C. (ed.): Human Sexual Behavior. Variations in the Ethnographic Spectrum. NY, London, Basic Books 1971: 88f).
Literature:
English: adultery