Defense officers are loyal to their girl

Semlaker Heimatbrief 21st episode - December 2001

Transcript

1 Semlaker Heimatbrief 21st episode - December 2001

2 Table of contents The 12th Semlak Meeting ... 2 Documents on our history ... 19 In the footsteps of the ancestors. The settlement of the Germans in Balmazújváros ... 31 The memory remains. Danube Swabian literature since Stefan-Heinz Kehrer on the Semlaker Heimatbrief ... 58 Customs in the life cycle. Birth and baptism ... 62 Semlak churches. Part addresses ... 98 Donor list Imprint

3 The 12th Semlak Meeting Our 12th hometown meeting, like all previous meetings, also took place on Pentecost. We met again, like two years ago, in the beautiful Nibelungenhalle in Kleinmehring near Ingolstadt. Also this year around 300 former compatriots accepted the invitation of the HOG Semlak to commemorate their old homeland together and to celebrate a happy reunion with music and dance. Already on Whit Saturday, June 2nd, many compatriots from Ingolstadt and other places met in the restaurant of the Nibelungenhalle for a cozy get-together. And this time, too, a lot of work was done to prepare the large hall for the big meeting on Pentecost Sunday. And it is always the same courageous men who enthusiastically help, above all our proven Ingolstadt board members Ewald Arasz, Friedrich Streck and Georg Szabo. We would like to take this opportunity to thank you and your wives once again for this, because we have always been able to rely on them. 2

4 12th Semlak Meeting The actual meeting was planned for Pentecost Sunday, June 3rd, 2001 and was organized and carried out as always by our hometown community. For this purpose, invitations were sent out to all Semlak households known to her in good time. From 10 a.m. after the opening of the hall, compatriots from all over Germany began to arrive, but compatriots from Austria, the USA, England and Canada were also there. At 11 a.m., the HOG board met to discuss its activities and the situation of the HOG. From left to right: Martin Schäffer, Georg Szabo, Georg Ledig, Michael Jost, Josef Brunner, Ewald Arasz, Alfred Bartolf, Georg Schmidt, Friedrich Streck, Johann Kaiser. The general meeting of the Semlak hometown community was opened at 3 p.m. by Friedrich Streck, who noted that the members had been invited to the meeting in due form and in due time with the following agenda: 1. Report by the HOG chairman 2. Treasury report 3. General discussion 4. Budget for the election of a new HOG board of directors As there were no suggestions for changes or additions to the agenda, this was followed. The report of the HOG chairman was presented by Georg Schmidt. 3

5 Our treasurer Johann Kaiser presented the cash report and the proposal for a budget for 2001 and 2002. Josef Brunner (left in the picture) presented the report on the cash audit, with the recommendation to relieve the board of directors. The electoral committee consisting of Georg Braun, Veronika Zimmermann and Joachim Wagner then headed the election for the new HOG board, which was elected for an electoral term of two years and to which the following compatriots belong: Name Office Place of residence Profession Age Arasz, Ewald Stellv. HOG chairman Ingolstadt Kfz.-Bauer 58 Bartolf, Alfred Secretary Neu Ulm businessman 43 Brunner, Josef cash auditor Kandel E-technician 39 Kaiser, Johann treasurer Kandel pensioner 67 Schäffer, Martin assessor Bönnigheim telecommunications engineer 43 Schmidt, Georg HOG chairman Ratingen Dipl. Ing 62 Streck, Friedrich Assessor Ingolstadt Kfz.-Bauer 42 Szabo, Georg Assessor Ingolstadt Kfz.-Bauer 53 The HOG chairman thanked the general meeting on behalf of the newly elected board for the trust they had placed in them, congratulated their members and wished them every success in their work in the service of our association. The band New Sound from Waldkraiburg with our compatriot Horst Takatsch then played until 1.30 a.m. to dance. During the afternoon, compatriot Dr. Paul Popovici with three self-composed songs, which he sang in three languages ​​to the delight of all of us. For the successful organization of the entire meeting, I would like to take this opportunity to thank all those who have also actively helped to make our home meeting successful this time. The new board of directors of HOG.Semlak 4

6 12th Semlaker meeting 5

7 Address by the chairman of the Semlak hometown community, ladies and gentlemen, dear fellow countrymen from Semlak! On behalf of the board of the Semlak hometown community, I would like to warmly welcome you to our 12th home meeting. We are delighted that so many of us have come together again today to commemorate our homeland together, to celebrate a contemplative and happy festival together and in old solidarity. Our greetings also go to all compatriots in Germany, in Semlak and all over the world, who cannot be with us today and we wish you all the best from here. Even today we would like to remember our dead together and in awe, who have left us forever since the last meeting. We also think of our dead who found their final resting place in the Semlak cemeteries and of those who rest in strange earth, of the victims of war and deportation. Let's keep a few moments of silence in honor of all of you. Ladies and gentlemen, I would like to begin with a quotation from the greeting of the Federal Chairman of the Landsmannschaft der Banat Swabia for the new year 2001, because I believe that, like no other text, it represents a quintessence of our fate and our sensitivities. Jakob Laub wrote: In 2001 we entered a new century. We have left an age in which our community has been subjected to the most severe strains. Two world wars that claimed their victims within our ethnic group, two deportations that placed heavy burdens on those affected, alienation of the homeland through coercive measures of the communist dictatorship, which shook the inner structure of the community, left deep traces (...). We had to find out what it means to be exposed to different political ideas as a national minority. They expressed themselves in different nationalities, in assimilation attempts and, unfortunately far too often, in the disregard of fundamental rights. The relocation to Germany, the ransom that began in the 1970s 6

8 The 12th Semlak Meeting, which lasted until 1989, was the result of traumatic experiences in the past century. However, the history of the Banat Swabians in the 20th century was not just a history of suffering and loss. It was and is today a story of solidarity, a new beginning and confidence. We have set signs of solidarity and experienced solidarity ourselves. Today we (...) live scattered all over the world. We left our ancestral home because we didn't want to give up on ourselves. The great majority found acceptance in the mother country and understanding from the government and administration, often also from our fellow human beings. We have found work and a place to live, new neighbors in new surroundings, but we have lost the old community. We are looking for them today at our meetings and big home days, we are looking for them at countless cultural events, we are looking for them in the Banat Post. We carry within us what distinguishes us from others: the knowledge of our shared history, the experience of the community, the commitment to our origins. We are united by the linguistic diversity of our dialect, we are united by the diversity of our costumes. We can draw on a 250-year history and we shouldn't put away what was worth and dear to us so quickly. Today we no longer experience the community of (...) in everyday life, but associated with certain festive days. This requires a commitment to one's origin and the will to consciously keep the community alive. That demands personal commitment, a lot of time and money. However, it is also a lot of fun and an honorable job. We decide today, by what we do or what we fail to do, how our community will survive in this century. I wish all of us the will and the strength to remain committed to the community. End of quote. Dear compatriots, today's general meeting of the Semlak hometown community is intended to give us the opportunity to take a brief look back at the work in our association over the past two years. I would like to remind you that, in accordance with our statutes, we state the following as the most important goals of the association: To promote the ties of the former Semlak people and their descendants, to preserve the cultural and economic achievements, our customs and our dialect from the earlier Semlak and to maintain. Our home meetings, which take place every two years, are the best opportunity to cultivate the ties between the former Semlakers and their fellow countrymen. The last one, two years ago, here in this beautiful hall, was, in my opinion, 7

9 12th Semlak meeting, one of the most successful. I wish all of us that today's meeting will also be a celebration of happy rediscovery. We would like to thank our Ingolstadt compatriots and especially our board members Ewald Arasz, Friedrich Streck and Georg Szabo for the good preparation of this event. I can report the following about the state of the club. The HOG Semlak currently has 169 registered members who, according to the membership declaration, have committed to support and support the association in its goals and efforts. I would like to take the opportunity to call again here to consider it a point of honor to join the HOG Semlak as registered members. The corresponding declarations of membership can be found in the last home letters. One of the goals we wanted to achieve through the organizational renewal of the hometown community four years ago was to become a non-profit organization. We succeeded in doing this soon afterwards and one advantage that results from the recognized non-profit status is that the donations to the HOG Semlak would have to be tax-free. I would like to ask you to report on your experience with the various tax offices. Dear compatriots, two weeks ago I returned from a visit to Semlak. My most important concern was to take care of our cemeteries and I can assure you that when I left, the Protestant and Reformed cemeteries looked better than they had for many years. In the summer of 1999 I found both cemeteries in a bad state. At that time I terminated the contracts with the respective commissioners and hired our compatriot Adam Bartolf for the maintenance of the Protestant cemetery and Mrs. Magdalena Jugu nee Kunkl for the reformed cemetery. Since then, the two cemeteries have been in an appropriate condition. We have also refrained from making special donations in favor of cemetery maintenance, because this system has unfortunately not proven itself. Too few compatriots stayed with it. We finance the maintenance of the cemetery from the HOG fund and I ask you to take this into account when making your donations. Our cemeteries are our gods, where many generations of our ancestors, relatives and friends rest. I ask all of you to continue to support her care in the future. 8th

10 12th Semlak Meeting Dear compatriots, the completion of the family book for the Protestant parish has unfortunately been delayed. Despite the great commitment of a number of compatriots who helped me and who volunteered hundreds of hours, such as B. Alfred Bartolf from Neu Ulm, Josef Brunner from Kandel and Ludwig Hnas from Herzogenaurach, we have not yet succeeded in completing this work. But I can report that at the moment practically all matriculations have been recorded and a large part of the family data has been compiled. We hope that the completion of the book will not be long in coming and that it will then be well received. Today I take the opportunity again to call again to inform me of the dates of death and places of the Protestant compatriots who did not die in Semlak, so that we can still include them in the family book. A corresponding form can be found in home letter No. 19. Ladies and gentlemen! The hometown community of Semlak has been accessible worldwide via the Internet since 1998. Many descendants of former Semlakers have found their roots again and it is always touching to read the s or the letters that we receive, especially from America, with how much gratitude these people make use of our service. Statistics of the accesses to the website of the HOG Semlak show that between December 1998 and May 2001 we were visited on the Internet about times. In addition, there are about 400 hits on my own website, which is almost exclusively dedicated to the HOG. The number of hits has risen particularly sharply recently, on the one hand because we have had a clearer address since last year and because the new homepage is registered with around 30 search engines. The HOG Semlak homepage was accessed from the following countries: Germany, Austria, Canada, Switzerland, USA, Hungary, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Sweden, Australia, France, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Italy, Poland, Israel and Finland. The ratio of hits to the individual pages of the homepage is fairly balanced, but the following pages have a better rate: The pictures from Semlak, the address list, general data, the board of directors, the geographical 9

11 12th Semlaker Treffen cal location of our hometown, both in German and in English. The full version of Heimatbrief No. 20 has recently been available on the Internet and our visitors were particularly interested in the articles about the Semlak churches, the escape into freedom and the article about Helmut Duckadam. Dipl. Ing. Erwin Poth I would like to take this opportunity to thank our compatriot, Dipl. Ing. Erwin Poth from Langenau for the excellent cooperation in this area. I would like to particularly mention not only his outstanding professionalism, but also the conscientiousness with which he stands by my side in this work and I would also like to recommend his example to other younger Semlakers. My thanks also go to fellow countryman Michael Kontz and his daughter Brigitte Davis from Regina, Canada, for their help with editing the English texts on the Internet. Since the last meeting two years ago, we have published episodes 19 and 20 of the Semlak Heimatbrief. In 17 articles and studies we dealt with questions about our history, dialect, customs and traditions or with well-known Semlak personalities. We have also dealt with the issues of the HOG. The pictures in the home letter were also very well received, as many people found themselves in one or the other picture. I would like to take this opportunity to thank the many employees who have provided me with texts and images, data and facts so that we can publish a series of publications of which we can rightly be proud. Well-known representatives of Banat German cultural life have repeatedly confirmed to me that our home letter is one of the best that the Banat hometown communities produce. I cannot mention all of the compatriots who supported me in my work on the home letter, the list would be too long. But I can't help but fol- 10

12 12th Semlak Meeting I would like to express my special thanks to the employees: Alfred Bartolf, Pastor Helmut Wolff, Katharina and Georg Kaiser, Josef Szarvas, Kurt Feiffer. Johann and Elisabeth Kaiser, who have been loyally serving our community for many, many years and who have taken on the time-consuming work of shipping and maintaining the addresses, we are all indebted to us. And last but not least, I would like to thank my wife Katharina Schmidt for the unreserved support of all of my work for the hometown community. Dear compatriots! At our 11th meeting on Whitsun 1999 we had elected the outgoing HOG board for a period of two years, to which the following compatriots belonged: Georg Schmidt, HOG chairman Ewald Arasz, deputy. HOG chairman Alfred Bartolf, secretary Johann Kaiser, treasurer Georg Ledig, assessor Martin Schäffer, assessor Friedrich Streck, assessor Georg Szabo, assessor Josef Brunner, auditor Michael Jost, auditor We have each tried our best to carry out the tasks that we in the Services our community have undertaken to perform as best as possible. On your behalf, I thank all board members for their commitment and I remain with the hope that it was for the benefit of all of us. Ladies and gentlemen, thank you for your attention. 11

13 12th Semlaker meeting 12

14 12th Semlaker meeting 13

15 12th Semlaker meeting 14

16 12th Semlaker meeting 15

17 12th Semlaker meeting Dr. Helmine Popovici née Vogel and Dr. Pavel Popovici Dietlinde and Georg Braun A reunion from three countries and two continents: Magdalena Guzei (Safnauer) with son Georg (USA), grandson Ottmar M.Safnauer (GB, with girlfriend) and daughter Juliane Maleth née Safnauer. 16

18 Declaration of membership I / we hereby apply for admission as a member of the Semlak hometown community within the meaning of its statutes. Surname, first name Date of birth Address Signature Place, date

19 Become a member of the Semlak hometown community! If you have not yet signed the declaration of membership, please cut out this page and fill it in and send it to: Georg Schmidt Buckaustraße Grevenbroich Your adult family members can and should also become members. Please also enter them in the list on the back. Extract from the statutes of the hometown community Semlak 4 MEMBERSHIP 4.1 All Semlak people and their family members who have reached the age of 18 are entitled to membership in the hometown community Semlak. A Semlaker is anyone who was born or lived in Semlak or who is descended from a Semlak. 4.2 Other persons can also become members upon written request. This is decided by the board of directors and, upon special request, by the general assembly. 4.3 Entry and exit take place by means of a written or oral declaration to the board of directors. You are possible at any time. 4.4 The members should promote the purposes of the association as far as possible. There is no membership fee. Financial and other services and contributions cannot be demanded from any member, but are based on a completely voluntary basis 18

20 documents on our history The ethnic group agreement. German-Romanian Protocol of August 30th In the desire to shape the position of the German ethnic group in Romania in accordance with the friendly relations between the German Empire and Romania, the Imperial Government and the Royal Romanian Government have agreed the following: The Royal Romanian Government takes on the obligation to equate the members of the German ethnic group in every way and to further develop the position of the German ethnic group in the sense of the Karlsburger resolutions to preserve their Germanism. Vienna, August 30th For the Reich Government: Ribbentrop Reich Minister of Foreign Affairs For the Royal Romanian Government: Manoilescu Royal Romanian Foreign Minister According to a report by the German News Office (DNB), published in monthly bulletins for Foreign Policy, published by the German Institute for Foreign Policy Research, Berlin , Vol. 7, H. 9, September 1940, S *** Das Volksgruppen-Gesetz. Decree Law No. 830/1940 on the constitution of the German ethnic group in Romania. Art. 1. The German ethnic group in Romania is declared a Romanian legal entity under public law and is called the German ethnic group in Romania. Art. 2. The German ethnic group in Romania includes all Romanian citizens whose German ethnicity due to their 19

21 documents relating to our history of the German people's commitment to the German people was recognized by the leadership of the ethnic group and which are therefore entered in the national cadastre of the German ethnic group in Romania. Art. 3. The national will-bearer of the German ethnic group in Romania is the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) of the German ethnic group in Romania. She works in the framework of the National Legionary Romanian State. Art. 4. With the approval of the Leader of the National Legionary State, the German ethnic group in Romania enacts regulations that are binding for their members to maintain and consolidate their national life. Art. 5. The German ethnic group in Romania can hoist the flag of the German people in addition to the flag of the Romanian state. Art. 6. All provisions contrary to the present decree law are and remain in force. Bucharest, November 20th General Ion Antonescu, Leader of the Romanian State and Chairman of the Council of Ministers From Monitorul oficial. Part 1. No. 275/1940 of November 21, 1940 *** 20

22 documents about our history The National School Act. Decree Law No. 977/1941 on the establishment of the German school system in Romania. Art. I. As a legal entity under public law, the German minority group in Romania has the right to open and manage elementary schools and theoretical and practical secondary schools as well as German teaching institutions of any kind. The German ethnic group in Romania is represented in its relations with the Romanian state in terms of teaching by the education authority of the German ethnic group. The Education Office of the German Ethnic Group notifies the Ministry of National Education and Culture about the opening of schools, which the Ministry will confirm if the provisions of the Romanian school laws are met. The education authority of the German minority takes over the teaching-technical training of the teaching staff. Training takes place on the same basis as that for teachers in Romanian schools. The professors in secondary schools are trained at universities and colleges according to the same principles as the professors in Romanian secondary schools. The equality of diplomas takes place within the framework of Law 782/1940. Art. II. The aim of education and instruction in German schools is to educate and educate the members of the German ethnic group in Romania to be good and loyal citizens of the Romanian state. For this purpose, the education authority of the German ethnic group in Romania will draw up an analytical program for school and examination regulations. The teaching level of the German schools in Romania must not be lower than the level of the state teaching of the corresponding level. The modern languages ​​to be taught in German schools are selected as required by the Education Office of the German Ethnic Group. A special program will be set up for Romanian language and literature. The teaching programs proposed by the Education Office of the German Ethnic Group in Romania must be submitted to the Ministry of National Education and Culture for approval. Art. III. In order to comply with the laws, regulations and orders of the Ministry of National Education and Culture in German teaching 21

23 documents on our history are correct, a special department of the German school service under the direction of a sub-director is being set up within the framework of the ministry. The entire German school system in Romania is subordinate to this department. The German ethnic group in Romania can propose to the ministry the person to be supervised with the tasks of the sub-director from the ranks of the members of the school system or higher officials of the Ministry of National Education for the purpose of appointment within the framework of the applicable laws and the civil servants' statute. This department (the sub-directorate) of the German teaching system in Romania is responsible for all German school teaching in Romania. The language of official correspondence with the services and authorities of the state is Romanian. Art. IV. The German schools run by the Education Office of the German Ethnic Group in Romania are public schools and enjoy the same rights and the same obligations as the Romanian state educational institutions. The members of the teaching staff of German schools must receive the same appointments and meet the same requirements for appointment as the members of the teaching staff of the Romanian state schools. If there is a shortage of German teachers from Romania, which has been determined by the Ministry for National Education and Culture, the Education Office of the German Ethnic Group can hire German professors temporarily and only for a single school year. Appointment, permanent appointment, re-appointment, disciplinary procedure and retirement of the members of the teaching staff in German schools are proposed by the Education Office of the German Ethnic Group and confirmed by the Ministry of National Education and Culture. Art. V. In order to facilitate the administration and maintenance of German teaching by the German ethnic group, the Romanian state will pay the German school staff the wages for the first time on November 1, 1941 according to the lists submitted to the Ministry of National Education. The total amount is made available monthly by the Ministry of National Education to the Education Office of the German Ethnic Group, which pays out to the staff of the German schools. The burdens imposed on the localities, districts and other institutions in favor of the German schools in these places and districts inhabited by Germans are to be related to the number of school attendants. 22nd

24 Documents on our History The Ministry of National Education and Culture will, on the basis of the special lists to be presented to it, which were drawn up for reasons of equity, grant scholarships to German pupils and students who lack the means and are worthy. The number of these grants is to be adjusted to the ratio of the number of German students to the number of Romanian students in the same category. The pension payments for the staff of the German schools are made by the Romanian pension funds under the same conditions as for the Romanian school staff. Art VI. The Ministry of National Education and Culture exercises the supreme control right over the school established under the conditions of this law. Art. VII. For German schools that do not comply with the provisions of this law, the Ministry of National Education and Culture can revoke the public rights after three warnings. Bucharest, November 7, 1941 Mihai A. Antonescu Vice-President and interim President of the Council of Ministers General Radu Rosetti Minister for National Education and Culture From Monitorul Official, Part 1, No. 266/1941 of November 8 * * * 23

25 documents about our history 24

26 documents on our history The German Labor Front (DAF) was the largest Nazi mass organization. It should penetrate all areas of economic and social policy in order to create a unified structure for all working Germans. The DAF is building a dense network of support, but also of control. The organization, which was founded in May 1933 in the course of the break-up of the trade unions, became the central unitary organization with compulsory membership 17 months later. The number of members rose to 23 million by 1938. The organization was incorporated into the NSDAP and acted as an umbrella for other institutions such as the leisure organization Kraft durch Freude and numerous commercial enterprises such as housing associations, construction companies, banks, publishing companies and the Volkswagen factory. The organization was headed by Robert Ley. The central office consisted of a working convention made up of association managers and office heads. The subdivision of the general associations into student unions roughly corresponded to that of the former sub-trade unions, since with the dissolution of the free trade unions the still existing organizations had been incorporated into the DAF. Since then they have been subject to central control according to the guidelines of the National Socialist ideology. After the constitution of the German ethnic group in Romania as a corporation under public law and the establishment of the NSdAP of the ethnic group, the various organizations affiliated with this party soon established themselves in our home country. The NAF in Romania was headed by the Transylvanian Fritz Cloos. As part of the NAF in Romania, the German team also developed as the paramilitary arm of the party. Political and physical training were on their agenda. Semlaker members of the German team under their storm leader Andreas Bartolf on the occasion of a training course in German Sankt Peter in September Above from left to right: Martin Sebold (579), Peter Schubkegel (663), Martin Schmidt (Henner, 663), Heinrich Bartolf (Nazarener, 1398), Josef Bartolf (605), Heinrich Wagner (Lamosch, 847). Middle: Michael Beinschroth (Jomer, 601), Adam Bartolf (Nazarener, 759), Mathias Bartolf (Hartuz, 662), Josef Safnauer (372), Daniel Schmidt (Henner, 292), Martin Schäfer (Hanni Schuster), Friedrich Schilling ( 1220). Below: Franz Kleiber (Seiler, 664), Ladislaus Lukatsch (490), Jakob Schmidt (teacher, 737), Andreas Bartolf (525), Adam Bartolf (Langhart), Samuel Klamm (740), Josef Schulz (Ludwig). 25th

27 Documents on our history Deportation to Russia on January 15, 1945 Secret order from the Kremlin Excerpts from the secret protocol No. of December 16, 1944 Results of the German count of December 15, 1944 On December 15, 1944, the People's Commissar for Internal Affairs, Lavrentij P. Beria, the State Committee for Defense, IV Stalin, and the Secretariat of the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, VM Molotov, presented a report on the German census that had taken place in the areas liberated from the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Ukrainian Fronts were. Responsible for the counts were the Deputy People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, Apollonov, and the head of the main administration for the NKVD troops in the hinterland, Gorbatjuk. According to this report, there were people of German nationality (men and women) in these areas. Of these were men of years of age. Listed according to age groups, this group of people was composed as follows: 16-year-old men 5,878, women-year-old men 6,271, women-year-old men, women-year-old men, women-year-old men, women-year-old men Women The greatest concentration of Germans was found in the area of ​​Romania, namely people (Men and women), including men aged years. In Romania there were also Germans in 15 camps (6,472 men and women). 26

28 Documents relating to our history For the mobilization of the Germans from Southeast Europe and their deportation to work in the USSR, Beria suggested that we should first fall back on men of years of age. There were men in that age group. However, it was considered that a certain number of the men included in this statistic were incapacitated for various purposes. Ultimately, Beria estimated the number of Germans eligible for mobilization to be approximately. In the event that the Germans were to be mobilized, he considered the following suggestions to be appropriate. 1. To instruct the NKVD of the USSR (Comrade Beria) with the mobilization and internment of the Germans in question who were in the areas controlled by the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Ukrainian Fronts. In addition, the NKVD should be responsible for putting together, handling and guarding the transports. In Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, soldiers from the countries concerned should also be involved in completing the formalities for mobilization. In Hungary and Czechoslovakia this should be done by the staffs of the relevant front. 2. The mobilized Germans should be allowed to take warm clothes, linen, bedding, personal dishes and food with them on the transport, a total of 150 kg per person. 3. To commission the chief responsible for the rear of the Red Army, Chrulew, with the loading, implementation and catering of the transports. 4. The mobilized Germans should be used for reconstruction work in the coal industry in Donbass and in the iron and steel industry in the south. Germans should be made available to the People's Commissariat for the Coal Industry, the People's Commissariat for Iron and Steel. For this purpose the Germans were to be divided into construction battalions of men. For each battalion, General Golikow (State Committee for Defense) was to provide officers who were limitedly fit for service in the Red Army. Source: Association of Former Russia Deportees * * * 27

29 Documents relating to our history The deportation order of the State Committee for Defense (GOKO) No. of December 16, 1944 The secret order of the State Committee for Defense, which was signed on December 16, 1944 in the Moscow Kremlin by Stalin, the chairman of the State Committee for Defense, took into account , the suggestions made by Beria and went z. T. even beyond. It contained the following points: 1. Decision to mobilize and intern all Germans capable of work, men of age, women of age, who were in the territories of Romania, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia liberated from the Red Army, to send them to work in the USSR. 2. The leadership of the mobilization should be subordinate to the NKVD (Beria). The NKVD should be responsible for the organization of the assembly points, the implementation of the mobilization, formation and handling of the transports as well as their guarding. 3. Comrades Malinovsky and Vinogradow in Romania as well as Comrades Tolbuchin and Birjuzow in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia were responsible for: a.) The mobilization and internment of the Germans with the help of the government organs of the countries concerned according to point 1 - of the resolution. b.) Together with the representatives of the NKVD, Apollonow and Gorbatjuk, provide the necessary military and civil forces to ensure the guarding and protection of the assembly points.Comrades Malinovsky and Tolbuchin in Hungary and Comrade Petrow in Czechoslovakia were to take the necessary measures on behalf of the front command posts to mobilize the Germans in accordance with point 1 and, together with the representatives of the NKVD, Comrades Apollonow and Gorbatjuk, the guard and the Ensure the protection of the collection points. 4. The mobilized Germans should be allowed to take warm clothes, linen, bedding, personal dishes and provisions (food) with them on the transport, a total of 200 kg per person. 5. The chief responsible for the rear of the Red Army, Comrade Chrulev, and the chief of the UPVOSO, Comrade Kovalev, should manage the railroad and 28

30 documents on our history Organize truck transports and provide food during the transport. 6. Dispatch of all mobilized Germans to work for the reconstruction of the coal industry in the Donbass and the iron and steel industry in the south. 10. The Germans were to be mobilized and interned between December 1944 and January 1945. The transports should have arrived at their destinations by February 15, 1945 and the entire operation should be completed. Only Molotov, Beria (NKVD), Voznesensky, Bulganin and Cadaev were to be aware of all the points in the resolution. All other people involved in the action should only know individual points, namely: Malinovsky and Vinogradow (2nd Ukrainian front), Tolbuchin and Biryuzov (3rd Ukrainian front, Petrov (4th Ukrainian front), Vysinsky, Chrulew the points 1, 2 , 3, 4, 5; Kovalev (VOSO) points 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10 as well as Miterev points 1, 2, 9. Beria's final report of February 22, 1945 on the implementation of the decision of the State Committee for Defense On February 22, 1945 Beria informed the chairman of the State Committee for Defense, IV Stalin, that the NKVD of the USSR had ordered the mobilization and internment of persons of German nationality in the territories of Hungary between December 25, 1944 and January 31, 1945 Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, with a total of people (men and women) being mobilized, interned and brought to work in the USSR iziere of the NKVD troops and 664 members of the operational organs of the NKVD / NKGB involved. In addition, Beria Stalin submitted a list of orders for approval, on which the names of those officers and soldiers of the NKVD or agents of the NKVD / NKBGB who had distinguished themselves during the operation were noted. The list of orders had already been approved by the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Kalinin, and the Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, Gorkin. A total of 353 people were to be awarded: 11 with the Order of the Red Banner, 27 with the Order of the Patriotic War 1st Class, 47 with the Order of the Patriotic War 2nd Class, 99 with the Order of the Red Star, 94 with the Medal for bravery and 75 with the medal for war merit. 29

31 Documents relating to our history Conclusion The deportation of Germans from Eastern and Southeastern Europe for forced labor to the Soviet Union was a meticulously planned undertaking by the NKVD. In doing so, the NKVD was able to fall back on a wealth of experience that it had already gathered in eastern Poland at the end of the 1930s and with the deportation of the Volga Germans and the Caucasians, the Crimean Tatars and parts of the Baltic peoples during the Second World War. That nothing was left to chance is evident from the fact that an extremely detailed personal file was created for each deportee. All in all, Germans from Yugoslavia, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia were deported to the Soviet Union. Since Stalin was only given the total number of deportees, the proportion of Romanian Germans can only be estimated. If you take the results of the German census as a basis, it was probably. Initially, only the deportation of men at the age of years was apparently planned. Since the number of these men seemed to the Soviet authorities to be too small, it was decided to deport women when they were years old. It is hardly likely that the Romanian authorities were surprised by the Soviets' intention to deport members of the German minority for forced labor. The German count, which must have taken some time, was already completed on December 15, 1944, and the Romanian authorities could easily imagine what the Soviets were doing with these Germans. The accusation that the Romanian authorities only used the Germans as scapegoats is completely unjustified, because the Soviets insisted on lic nemeckoj nacionalnosti (persons of German nationality) from the start. The position of the Romanian government can only be finally clarified when the minutes of the Romanian Council of Ministers are also made available to research. 30th

32 The Settlement of the Germans in Balmazújváros i Materials on Sociography in Balmazújváros By Imre Lengyel 1 1. The Settlement of the Germans in Hungary The settlement of Germans began under the rule of the first Hungarian kings, who developed into a Western, Christian-Latin-Germanic culture known. The impetus for these methodical and targeted settlements was provided by circumstances, the cause of which was partly to be found in the country itself, but partly outside the country. 2. The external impulse consisted of an expanding tendency in the German states, which had been nourished by the increase in population. The inner impulse lay in the efforts of the Hungarian kings to colonize the vast and sparsely populated country with obedient subjects. Of course, this applied not only to the whole country, but also to individual smaller areas. The German settlements in Hungary can be divided into two large groups according to their historical origins: the older settlements from the time of the Árpád kings and the newer ones, under the rule of the Habsburgs. Several other settlement epochs are anchored within this global temporal allocation. The cultural diversity of the settlers therefore extended from the knights in heavy iron armor who entered the country under Stephan the Holy to the wealthy Swabian farmers who immigrated in many variations in the 18th century. It is undisputed that the first settlements were aristocratic and served dynastic purposes. Later economic and agricultural considerations came to the fore. With the settlements under the Habsburgs, the question of faith also became increasingly important. In the case of the new settlements, this usually meant that a large number of Catholics were settled in the traditionally Calvinist areas. In this context, the reasons for the settlement of Germans in Balmazújváros are very interesting. Their emergence was also based on 1 Aus: Essays by the Institute for Linguistic Research and Phonetics of the University of Debrecen. Volume I. No. 2. Published in Pallas Debrecina, essays of the reformed teacher training institute in Debrecen, volume 13, Debrecen Bela Puhánszky: The history of German literature, page

33 In the footsteps of the ancestors religious backgrounds and events, as will be discussed in more detail below. Historically, the settlement of the Germans in Balmazújváros is to be regarded as a secondary settlement of the German settlements from the more recent times under the Habsburgs. The reasons for the emergence of German settlements in Hungary during this period were based, beyond historical events, on a psychologically important moment in general contemporary history, namely the fact that resettlements and the spatial redistribution of large sections of the population were almost everyday occurrence at the time. The wave of resettlement movements almost never stopped at that time. After the Edict of Nantes was annulled at the end of the 17th century, several thousand Huguenot families sought and found a new home in Prussia and the Netherlands. This relocation primarily affected families of craftsmen. In Hungary, on the other hand, the government tried to attract arable farmers in line with the agricultural importance of the country. The aim of the Viennese court with the settlement of Germans was on the one hand to secure and increase the state revenue, on the other hand the intention to Germanize the Kingdom of Hungary, or at least large parts of it gradually, and the Hungarian blood, which is prone to revolution and unrest German mixed, to tame obedience and love towards their natural and God-willed eternal king. 3 Mainly Germans were settled on the large, fallow and overgrown stretches of land that were robbed of their population. They brought with them a higher economic and agricultural culture. Peoples with a more retrograde culture also took part in the resettlement, Serbs and Romanians were now also to be found in the most Hungarian parts of the country (Bihár, Szatmár, etc.) The settlement of the Germans under the Habsburgs took place in several stages: first there were settlers from Nieder- Austria and the Czech Republic arrived in the western border region and in the area of ​​the Bakony Mountains, then settlers from Bavaria from the Danube region found themselves in the area around Pest and in the Vértes Mountains. Later, the area of ​​settlement expanded more and more to the east and south. Settlers from Württemberg, Baden, the Rhineland, Alsace-Lorraine and Luxembourg moved to the lowlands, to the southern areas on the other side of the Danube, to the Batschka and the Banat. There were differences between the settlements by the chamber and the private landlords. The Chamber's settlements were inherently larger, more costly, and the contracts with the settlers were cheaper. Since the first settlers from Swabia lived in 3 Homann-Szekfü: History of Hungary, Bd.4. Page 17 32

When the Germans settled in Balmazújváros ten areas, the name Swabia had also become natural for settlers from other parts of Germany. The area beyond the Tisza was also affected by the waves of great settlement movements, the later, closely related consequence of which was the settlement of the Germans in Balmazújváros. 2. The settlement of the Germans in Balmazújváros The settlement of the Germans in Balmazújváros can be seen as the result of religious intolerance and persecution. The Reformed Germans in Vadkert, who were settled by Baron Stephan von Orczy from Harta (Pest County), Nagyszékely (Groß Jeckel) and Gyönk (Ging) (Tolna County), often suffered restrictions and handicaps in the free exercise of their faith. In June 1766 the disturbances became unbearable. On the orders of the Bishop of Kalocsa, the angry Catholic population destroyed the common Protestant prayer house and confiscated their bell, which was later returned, but in an unusable condition. This attack and the violent persecution had discouraged many believers in the community, some of them gathered their belongings together, turned them into money and left Vadkert to settle in Balmazújváros. 4 The huge area around Balmazújváros came into the possession of the Andrássy family from Siklos as a royal donation in the middle of the 18th century, together with ¾ of the Horth estate. This large estate demanded labor. So the Germans from Vadkert arrived here at the right time. Whether the settlement was due to the express wish of the rulers, or whether it was due to chance, cannot be determined for the time being due to a lack of materials. After the Andrássy family died out, King Frederick I gave the property to the Semsey family. From then on, the Germans were under the domination of the Semseys. 4 Heinrich Spielmann, a teacher in Vadkert, mentioned this event in his chronicle of 1792 as follows: As little as a new happiness was thought of, it was now all the closer, the 26th of June in 1766, the thunderstorm of persecution broke again from over the two reformed, and evangelical Bäthaus, and were made through the instigation of the Galotsch bishop, with the execution of the amazing deed by another judge of Pest, who led the Keezeler, Akastoer and local Catholics, who by now had already increased quite a bit , torn down again. The bell was taken away and taken to Galotsa, where it had stood useless for a time. From then on it came back here, and was given to the Catholics, by the bishop, to whom it served for a while until it did not come back to us: but how we got it back, I will report that to his place. As a result of this repeated fate, the minds of the community became faint-hearted, timid and disgruntled, many packed up and went to Ujváros, where they now make up a community 33

35 In the footsteps of the ancestors The question of the origin of the Germans in Balmazújváros remains unanswered. The core and the bulk of the German settlement are the Germans from Vadkert, who in turn were settled there from other German Protestant villages. There are only a few Protestant German villages in Rumfenarn, such as Bonnya, Udvari, Gyönk, Bonyhád, Hidas, Morágy, Harta and a few more in the Batschka, which today belong to Yugoslavia. Protestant Germans were settled under the rule of Charles IV and Joseph II. So took place z. B. the settlement in Gyönk between In Harta Pál Ráday settled Reformed Germans around 1723. Later Protestant settlements that arose under the reign of Joseph II are: Újszivác (Neusivatz 1785), Cservenka (Tschervenka 1785), Újverbász (Neu Werbaß 1785), Soove (Schowe 1786.). The German Protestants generally come from the central Rhine region. The opinion has emerged about the residents of Balmazújváros that they came from Hesse 5. However, there are indications that the Germans in Balmazújváros come from the Palatinate, or at least that many of them emigrated from the Palatinate are 6. This also seems to prove the fact that the name commonly used in Balmazújváros for a vest, the Pruschlappe, is also known in the other settlements with the Palatinate population. If the name lists of the Germans settled in Szivác in 1786 are compared with the first list of names of the Germans in Balmazújváros, compiled in 1801, several family names can be discovered that occur in both places (e.g. Dietz, Schmidt, etc.). The settlement in Balmazújváros did not take place in one go, but in several stages. As far as we know, the first group came to Balmazújváros as early as 1764, as a harbinger of those Germans from Vadkert who were hindered in their free exercise of their faith. Immigration continued in smaller groups until the summer of 1766, when the religious war forced the Protestants in Vadkert to leave the village. The formation of a German community in Balmazújváros goes back to the second, actual main group. Oral tradition says that the Germans were initially settled west of Hajdúszoboszló. This assumption is only tenable in connection with the first group, because Vadkert had the main group in 1766 in 5 Szekfü Gyula: as a reminder of the German settlers in the area of ​​Hortobágy (Balmazújváros), in the language of the ancients in Hajdúböszörmény are still today the features of Dialect from the area south of Frankfurt to be discovered (in Homann-Szekfü: History of Hungary, vol. 6, page 187) Heinrich Schmidt: ... in my opinion, the Germans in Balmazújváros from areas on the right bank of the Rhine come mainly from Hesse (from the letter to The author of) 6 In the protocol of the church district on the other side of the Tisza one can read: The Germans of the Christian Reformed faith who settled in Balmazujváros, who previously lived in Palatinat, then in Vadkert, ask the superintendent in Debrecen to sermon and supplicate after the Hungarian service may also read in German (material on the history of the Reformed Church on the other side of the Tisza, be th) 34

36 Leaving the settlement of Germans in Balmazújváros summer and already in August in Balmazujvàros expressed the wish to be able to pray in German after the Hungarian service. It can be concluded from this that the first group was already incorporated into the Hungarian parish before 1766. The first marriage of a German couple was made on June 4, 1765 by Mihály Tót, the Hungarian Reformed pastor in Balmazújváros. 7 Further settlers came from the other Reformed and Protestant villages (Újszivac, Cservenka, Újverbász, Svábolaszi, etc.). The resettlement from these villages to Balmazújváros began in the years around to be appreciated. Johann Heinrich Fäsi, the first preacher of the German community, had drawn up the first register of the residents immediately after his arrival in Balmazújváros in October 1801. According to this directory, there were about 90 houses in the village, together with the rectory, in which 112 families lived, which was about the same number of people.According to this, there could have been around 400 people when they moved in. The Germans were housed apart, in a separate part of the village that is still known today as the German Village. The building sites assigned by the rulers in a regular arrangement form what is now Kossuthstrasse, formerly also known as Deitsch Großgass. This local area was the original German settlement. Other streets such as the New Line were built later. The Hungarian part of the village had traditionally developed along the country roads to the nearest settlements (Debrecen, Nádudvarer, Szoboszlóer streets). Since the Germans were housed in the outer and somewhat more remote part of the village, there was little contact between the two nations. This fact contributed significantly to the preservation of the national idiosyncrasies of the Germans over a long period of time. 7 Entry in the parish register of the Hungarian Reformed Church from June 4, 1765: Reformed German Varga (!) Jakab who lives here, marries Anna 35, daughter of Guthermuth or Vig Marton, who also lives here

37 In the footsteps of the ancestors 3. Economic structures and their consequences According to their financial circumstances, the settlers were assigned the fron estates, which consisted of an inner and an outer part. The inner Frongut consisted of the Fronhof and inland fields, the outer one of arable land and meadows. So received z. B Adam Hartmann a ¾ Fronhof, 1.5 yoke inland fields and a 6-man meadow 8. A whole courtyard had 25 cadastral yokes. Not many were given entire courtyards, the usual size was between ½ and ¾ courtyards. It is characteristic of the financial situation of the Germans that among the serf farmers of Count István Andrássy 28 farmers owned a farm and house and only 15 were without farms. Of these 15, 11 had house places, 4 had to live in servants' apartments. At the same time only one smallholder was registered with Count Zsigmond Andrássy. According to oral tradition, the rulers had to do a robot day a week, and the proceeds of the tithe had to be delivered. The majority of the Germans who settled there were arable farmers. Accordingly, there was a great shortage of craftsmen. As a result, they tried to persuade the traveling craftsmen to stay. For this reason, a marriage with members of the Hungarian artisan families was welcomed. The Germans took over the agricultural cultivation structure from the Hungarian farmers and grew wheat (wàz), rye (korn), barley (gerscht) and oats (hawer). The work in the fields is also the same as harvesting (wàz abmache), mowing (hài mäh) and haymaking (hài uf mache). The hemp is usually processed by women. It is roasted (hanfréze), bagged with a breaker (hanfsprech), hacked with the hackel (hickel) and the material (sakgarn) obtained is processed into yarn with the help of a reel (haschp) and spinning wheel. The yarn is woven into lengths of fabric, which are then softened in the oven, bleached after steaming, washed, dried and finally brought to the dyer in Debrecen. Fruit is not grown in large quantities. However, if anything is left of the harvest, it is sold in the market. There are sour cherries (kärsche), sweet cherries (sísskärsche), apples (appel), pears (pér), quinces (quide) and plums (plaume) in the gardens. Grapes are not only planted in home gardens, but also in vineyards (Wingert). During the grape harvest, the grapes (trauwe) are transported in the vat (put). Next to agriculture, livestock is her second most important occupation. Cows (ku, plur: kí), horses (kaul, plur: kail), pigs (sau, plur: sai), sheep (schof), chickens (hingl), chicks (hingltje), and roosters (kokasch), ducks ( end), 8 This information comes from the director Antal Varga 36

38 The settlement of Germans in Balmazújváros and Taube (taub, plur: tauwe) can be found on both German and Hungarian farms. Those who had neither a house nor a farm worked as servants for the large farmers or were employed as shepherds. The shepherd (schéfer) with his long stick (hekelcke) followed the herd over long distances, lived for weeks on bread, bacon, milk and water that he drank from a bottle (wassrfessi). Recently, some of them are entering professions that require higher education. They have an excellent sense for economic contexts and recognized early on the advantages that a cooperative could offer them (e.g. the Ant cooperative, etc.). The ruling class consisted predominantly of Germans. As a result of their hard work, persistent work and wise economic decisions, their financial situation had improved to such an extent that today many of the Germans also own land in the districts of the other localities. The ownership structure is balanced. However, it is almost impossible to think about expanding the property on site. Here, in the outskirts of the village, there are insurmountable obstacles, the count's extensive lands prevent any expansionist efforts. That is one of the reasons for the emigration. That is why we find many German landowners from Balmazújváros in the boundaries of the surrounding villages (Hajdúböszörmény, Hajdúszoboszló, Nagyléta, Vértes, etc.). Among the German farmers there is one with a 120 yoke field, two with 100, 10 with 70-80, 12 with 50, 20 with yoke almost every farmer has; About 100 families live on daily wages. The financial position resulting from the economic situation is best reflected in three factors of daily life: the condition of the houses, clothing and eating habits. The origin of the houses was provided by the Frankenhaus with its floor plan divided into three areas. From the street you enter the hall (corridor) through the small gate, which extends the entire length of the house. About in the middle is the door (tír) to the kitchen (kich). From here you enter the large room (gross-schtup) facing the street and the small one (klàn-schtup) facing the courtyard. There used to be an open hearth (faierherd) in the kitchen, which contained a three-legged frame (tripod), a cast pot (hawe, plur: hewe) and a potato (krope). From here the oven (pakuofe) was heated with the help of a szivano (?) (Kitsch) and a baking shovel (pakschísér). The facilities of the two rooms were similar, except that the large room was used less often and the decor was a little more grand. Both rooms have beds (pet r), benches and tables (pànk and 37

39 In the footsteps of the ancestors table), chairs (schtul, plur: stíl), painted chests (kischt). The walls were decorated with mirrors (schpígl) and plates (tellr). The German houses are generally clean. There are two windows on the street front. If the windows facing the courtyard are not in frame 9, then the window niches are painted the same as the corridor, which the women paint themselves with brightly colored and often garish patterns. You have a great preference for strong colors like blue and yellow. At the back of the house, under a slightly lower roof, the stables are lined up. The houses have a basement, the stair access is in the corridor, in the older houses in one of the rooms. Behind the house is a vegetable garden, in front of the house, but not with everyone, there is a flower bed. The clothing of the Balmazújváros Germans has almost completely lost its original character and has adapted to the clothing of the Hungarians. In the past, men wore lederhosen, but today they only wear simple boot pants that can be bought at the market. The vest, known as the Pruschlappe, is worn equally by men and women. The women used to wear wide skirts with six petticoats and padded short jackets (muce) with a tailcoat at the back. The short jacket made of sheepskin for the winter (fur) was often adorned with red or green patches of leather. Only the young women wore a hood (hàupche), the old ones tied a simpler headscarf around themselves. It was common practice to wear an apron. Your meals are very simple. Today they drink coffee for breakfast, in the past they ate soup or a porridge made from grains and noodles. Lunch consisted of soup and a vegetable or noodle dish. Soups: meat broth (kutisup), cabbage soup (krautsup), vegetable dishes: kélríb (carrot), kríkraut (a type of spinach), krumbelc with kripche` (potato casserole with bacon), kraut and praj (sauerkraut with mashed potatoes), gfiltkraut (cabbage) kraut und flásch (sauerkraut with meat). Pasta dishes: heprecsóré (cereal porridge with noodles), grispraj with milich (semolina porridge), kraut and knep (sniff noodles with cabbage). Sweet pastries were only available on the holidays: cabbage strudel (krautrédes), cherry strudel (kärschschtrudl) and others. 9 Note on translation: in old farmhouses the window frames were set flush with the outer facade. Here we mean a window niche that is created in the outer facade when the windows are set flush with the inner wall. 38

40 The settlement of the Germans in Balmazújváros 4. Socio-cultural institutions: community, church and school system The German settlement in Balmazújváros was not an independent community. So the influence of the Germans on the affairs of the municipal administration was initially limited. But they took an active part in school and church life and thus actively steered the decisions. With their serious will to work and their school and church decisions guided by common sense, they had won more and more recognition. This increased their reputation and influence in the entire community, so that after only one generation of people, the city judge was elected from among the Germans. The following is recorded in the minutes of the presbytery of: Peter Leyder was elected city judge to the great joy and lasting fame of the family and the German community, city jury from the side of the German alley: Philipp Schilling 10. Peter Leyder remained in the office of judge for a decade and a half, in 1841 he was still a city judge. From this point on, Germans are always represented among the leading figures in the community, partly as jury members and partly as judges. In the first four decades after the settlement, the German congregation was incorporated into the Reformed Hungarian Church, and they had a prayer house built 11, where they are then provided with the holy sacraments either by their teacher Konrad Pfielmann 12 or by the Hungarian pastor Daniel Szatmári. Her desire to be looked after by her own pastor grew stronger over time. When Johann Heinrich Fäsi 13 also visited Balmazújváros on the occasion of a church collection campaign, the Germans offered him the position of pastor (). Fäsi was born on in Thallwill on Lake Zurich. He was ordained a priest on, and he served in several places in Switzerland before he finally took up his post as pastor in Josephsberg and Ugartsberg in eastern Galicia at the end of 1792. He married Louise Amalie Passavant. During the six years in Balmazújváros they had five children. Only the last one remained alive, Konrad. Her other children, Wilhelm and Ulrich, were not born in Balmazújváros. 10 Church protocol, page Church protocol page 2 When there was a strong increase, they (the Germans) built a house of prayer from their own resources in 1793 and were generously given a gift from this time Woladelichen rulership. J.H. To use Fäsi !! 13 The information on the life and work of Johann Heinrich Fäsi in Balmazujváros, a descendant of Pestalozzi, was compiled by the author in response to a request from Zurich. 39

41 In the footsteps of the ancestors Fäsi laid the foundations for the independent German Reformed parish in Balmazújváros. First of all, he called together a monthly presbytery based on Western models, which began its work with the meeting of 14.The tasks of the monthly meetings included the joint and fraternal discussion of affairs serving the well-being of the community, decisions on the school system and public welfare as well as the Establishing and prosecuting ethical misconduct. The regulation of the divine service 15 also goes back to Fäsi. The following schedule is set for the Sunday service: psalm songs, prayer under the pulpit, reading from the Bible, songs from the Zurich hymn book, preparatory songs from the Büdinger hymn book, supplication before the sermon, texts, sermon, prayer, blessing and songs at Leaving the church. On Sunday afternoons, instead of the sermon, the Sunday school for children took place with the following sequence: songs, prayer in the pulpit, reading from the Bible, reading from the Heidelberg Catechism by the children, processing of what had been read in the form of questions and answers, closing speech, Prayers and songs. The everyday service consisted of morning singing, prayers, Bible reading, songs and Blessing 16. Fäsi attached great importance to the school system, so that he also occupied himself with the children. A bell tower, instead of a frame, could only be built during the time of his successor József Drabek (the foundation stone was laid on). Anton Keck () and János Demjén () continued the work of their predecessors. During the time of János Demjén the construction of the rectory began. József (Dicsöfi) Rostomili () and David Hofmann () can keep the German Reformed Church until the beginning of the 20th century, despite the steadily increasing Magyarization. For a long time, the language of church services was German. From 1832 the Germans in Balmazújváros listened to the Hungarian church service on every 3rd Sunday. The German word from church services did not disappear completely until 1926. As already mentioned, the Germans were very interested in the education of their children. Fäsi was personally convinced of the children's progress and therefore attended school twice a week, accompanied by the curator and a presbyter. The parents paid school fees annually, 12 Kreuzer for 6-7 year olds, 18 Kreuzer for 7-8 year olds, 24 Kreuzer for 8+ year olds. Every year there were two public exams, once at the beginning of March and 14 Church minutes, pages Church minutes, pages I would like to thank the Reformed pastor, Dr. Bela Molnar, who stood by my side during my work. 40

42 The settlement of Germans in Balmazújváros once in mid-October. Good students were encouraged to continue their work with gifts. The first teacher known by name was Heinrich Hildebrand (). He was followed by Konrad Pfielmann. After him, many teachers worked with more or less success on the education of the children. For a long time only German-speaking teachers were employed. When the teaching position was replaced, they did not turn to the college in Debrecen, but to the college of education in Kecskemét or Käsmarkt.17 If the teacher was unmarried, he was given food every day by a different family, this was the coquia. The Magyarization of the school continued gradually, German as the official language of instruction could only last until the middle of the 1880s. The German language is hardly spoken by some old people today, and some of them only speak it brokenly. 5. Folk customs The Germans had brought many interesting folk customs with them from their homeland, some of which were connected with the periodically recurring events and festivals of the year and some with the more or less significant events of human life. Most of these folk customs are already forgotten today. In the first days of the New Year the children went from house to house bringing New Year's wishes, this was called vincsázás. A poem from earlier read: I win you a silver table At every corner a baked fish, In the middle àn Kanta Wàn, you should sàn merrily, That you are well on earth, pious people will be blessed. Then they said I wish you a happy New Year, peace, unity in eternal bliss. Or they knocked on Morje dear Hausloit with this saying, In this season of the year God should give you a long life and many more children. If the bearer of the good news was a boy, 17 Register book of the German community in Balmazujváros: Efforts should be directed towards getting a new teacher who can speak German and Hungarian at the same time. The matter can be given less postponement, the more our hopes dwindle, despite our efforts to get a suitable teacher from the college in Debrecen; So we can already see that we have to turn to the heads of higher education institutions. 41

43 In the footsteps of the ancestors, they answered that I would win a red bride, if that was a girl, then a red guys win me for a year. These New Year wishes are also with the other Germans in Hungary, e.g. known in Bátaszek, Högyész (Kom. Tolna).18 In our day there are only simple New Year's wishes, and the children, who bring good wishes, are rewarded with money. As an Easter custom, it was common for children to make a nest out of grass or to put a hat or cloth in the window so that the Easter bunny could hide nuts and apples in it. Mothers of young girls colored red eggs (Oschtreier). The colored eggs were then distributed among the boys who had come to sprinkle the girls with water. The Germans had adopted this custom on Easter Monday from the Hungarians. At Pentecost they showered each other with good wishes and children were offered braided bread. Christmas began the evening before, and the children were on the lookout for the Christ Child (Kristkindche), who would rope down on the bell rope. At dusk, masked boys roamed the village, accompanied by the loud noise of rattles and bells. The noisy train stopped at the houses where young girls lived. And while they were still being rewarded with nuts and apples for their funny sayings and jokes, one of them had already secretly unhooked a ham or sausage from the fireplace and hidden it under his clothes. On New Year's Eve, children went from house to house singing: The old year has passed, We thank you, O Jesus Christ; O Jesus, our sea of ​​faith, To your name praise and honor. The greetings do not have any particular characteristics. Greetings are made with Morje in the morning, Krossdank at lunchtime, and Knowet and Knacht in the evening. Help God is also used during the day at work. At night, the night watchman used to watch over law and order. The security guard reminded you of the advancing time in German and Hungarian: The clock has already struck ten, my lord has sent me to tell you: Uf s fire and water, watch out. Oh Jesus Christ! Tizet ütött már az óra, Halgassanak a vigyázóra, Tüzre, vizre vigyázzanak. Az Úr Jézus Krisztus! 18 Elmar Schwartz: An old New Year's song, DUHBL, pages and

44