Which is better C ++ or Java

Internet Programming for Beginners - Which Programming Language is Best?


Learning to program is a long, difficult journey - and if the first few hundred kilometers are in the wrong direction, you will likely break off the journey and sit on the couch. So you should think twice about which programming language you start with!

Selection criteria

There are many ways to choose the best programming language to get started with - and there will never be an unambiguous answer. Are you looking for a language that is particularly easy to learn? A language for a specific application area? Should it open up the best job opportunities for you? Or maybe the maximum salary? Or should it be the most popular? Most popular? Depending on your answer, a different language should pop up. And even there there are different sources with not always the same results ... But well, let's try to find recommendations for a couple of these areas. A good source, for example, is the Stack Overflow survey.

What popularity is concerned, there is a clear message here: JavaScript is ahead with 62.5 percent, followed by SQL with 51.2 percent. But is that helpful to you? Only to a limited extent: SQL is simply used everywhere for databases and is not at all suitable for general programming entry. JavaScript, on the other hand, could be interesting.

The best Job and salary prospects? Stack Overflow differentiates between web and desktop developers, admins and data engineers - and almost everywhere the most common answer is again JavaScript, only for desktop programmers it only comes in second place. So JavaScript is getting even more interesting. In terms of salaries, JavaScript employees are only 21st worldwide, in Germany at least 6th, with an annual salary of a good 51,000 US dollars. That is just 2,000 euros less than the front runner Java.

And what do you want developer? The most popular language among respondents is Rustwhich only applies to coders who (have to) work with it. Are under "Most Wanted" python and again, JavaScript in places 1 and 2. On the other hand, 40 percent of those surveyed say that they would prefer not to continue working with JavaScript - a statistic in which Python only appears much later.

You want one specific area to edit? Then it becomes difficult. PHP for example, it is passionately hated because it is technically not really good. On the other hand, a large part of all websites is made up of PHP code to a large extent! As a web developer, at some point you will hardly get around it. Do you want to develop programs that run as perfectly as possible and get really deep into computer science? Then the classics are on offer C., the much more practical C ++, but mainly Java at. All three languages ​​are very powerful, allow the most basic work and are also very popular with companies in the commercial environment. Java is quite good to get started with, C not at all and C ++ only for those who are really, really serious!

Now it's getting really exciting: you're looking for one easy to learn language? There are two well-known winners here, if you take a look, for example, at what is used at American universities for programming courses: Python and Java are clearly ahead here. This is followed by Matlab for mathematical matters as well as C and C ++, which are increasingly being replaced by Java.

With all these buzzwords, three candidates keep cropping up: JavaScript, Java and Python. Java and Python are both suitable for pretty much all purposes, JavaScript is aimed almost exclusively at web developers. And that would be our recommendations for getting started: JavaScript, if you want to work primarily on interactive websites and the like, and Python for a general introduction to programming - because it is the most popular language for both developers and teachers.

General introduction: Python

Python has basically established itself as the egg-laying woolly milk sow in recent years. You will find discussions in many places on the web, whether Python is a scripting language or a "real" programming language, but you can make it easy for yourself: The inventor of Python, Guido von Rossum, calls Python a "universal general purpose programming language"And that fits. You can use Python to write small scripts for everyday admin, but also monolithic desktop programs for customers.


The Python code remains relatively easy to read, which is a tremendous help when getting started. There is also Lots of free learning materials; Regardless of whether you are looking for an introduction to a specific topic, entire online tutorials, programming aids directly in the browser or training programs for the desktop - you will find a large selection. But even after the learning phase, if you want to become productive, the Python world supports you, among other things with many useful, free libraries. Such libraries contain standard functions that not every Python developer has to reinvent for every project. For example, a number of Matlab functions can be recreated with NumPy - except that NumPy is of course available free of charge.

Python simply offers the best overall package: It is open source, developers love it, teachers love it, it is absolutely universally applicable, tools for learning and programming are abundant, you can try your hand at the first little hacks on hundreds of thousands of open source projects and all of this remains the same language but relatively easy to read. Python is therefore clearly our tip for your first steps in programming.

And last but not least, a tip for all the lucky ones: If you have a good friend or relative who programs himself and whom you can pound with questions, it is best to use their standard language. Because with all the good documentation on the Internet: At the beginning you will be asked a number of questions that are not always answered specifically for your case, but just something similar. And especially with questions about syntax, you will waste hours searching, although the questions are usually hardly more difficult to answer for a reasonably experienced programmer than the question of the time. The best entry language is the one for which you are allowed to abuse friends as private lecturers. Well, if it's your grandpa and he comes around the corner with assembler - then I prefer Python.

For web developers: JavaScript

Of course, there are also developers who are less interested in the whole cosmos of programming than in business and design. So if you are more interested in knitting fancy, interactive websites or perhaps starting your own start-up as a business student, JavaScript is not a bad alternative. The professional chances are also very good because JavaScript developers can probably start at almost any web service provider, even the youngest. Basically, the same applies here as for Python, thanks to a huge community.