What causes cysts on the neck

definition

Throat cysts are congenital cystic swelling of the neckwhich are mostly visible and palpable and can catch fire. Cysts are cavities that are filled with fluid. They can arise due to incorrect development of the throat viscera or are leftovers from the development of the throat organs. Depending on the localization, a distinction is made between median, i.e. middle, and lateral or lateral cervical cysts, which have different causes. Mostly neck cysts appear with children on and become before the age of 6 diagnosed. However, they can be observed at any age.

Causes of a cervical cyst

Causes of neck cysts can be Wrong development of the throat viscera and Disturbances in the regression of embryonic structures be. Tissue from which cervical cysts can consist is a remnant from the development of the cervical organs of the embryonic period. Depending on the location, whether in the middle or on the side of the neck, the causes of the cysts are different.

Medium cervical cysts arise through a failure of a canal to regressthat leads from the base of the tongue to the thyroid gland. The inner layer of tissue in this thyroid duct forms mucus, which creates a fluid-filled cavity called a cyst. This channel should close before the birth. If he does not do this, there is a visible and palpable swelling in the middle line of the neck. It can get bigger, swell and become infected.

The cause of side neck cysts is this not yet finally clarified. It is believed that lateral cervical cysts, also called brachiogenic cysts, Remnants of gill arches, a structure of embryonic development. Usually a lateral cervical cyst emerges from the second of the total of six gill arches. A cavity forms, which normally disappears again. If this is not the case, part of it or a passage remains behind. This fluid-filled cavity is usually located laterally below a neck muscle.

Signs of a neck cyst

A sign of a cervical cyst is one Swelling of the neck. This can be palpable or visible. A cyst can enlarge and become inflamed. It can become a Reddening of the neck area come and also to fever. If the fluid in a cervical cyst drains through a small connection to the surface of the skin, one is created Throat fistula.

Read more on the topic:Swelling on the side of the neck

Accompanying symptoms of a cervical cyst

Depending on whether it is a medial or lateral neck cyst, the swelling is in the middle of the neck or on the side. With a medium-sized cyst, thyroid duct cysts can extend to the base of the tongue. When swallowing, the swelling moves with the swallowing movement.

If there is no inflammation, a cyst may be symptom-free or just one slight feeling of pressure in the neck area trigger. If a cyst becomes infected, it can too Redness, fever and severe pain come.

There is also one for side cervical cysts swelling to observe. It can happen that lateral cysts have a connection to the tonsil in the throat. If this is the case, the cyst with a sore throat can swell and become painfully enlarged. Bacterial inflammation in the throat can spread to the cyst and it can lead to a Suppuration come. This allows a abscess develop and fever and difficulty swallowing result.

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OP of a neck cyst

In the treatment of cervical cysts, the goal is complete surgical removal, as the cysts don't go away on their own and inflammation can occur at any time. Before an operation, a Thyroid examination This can be done to ensure that the surgery does not injure or remove any abnormal thyroid tissue. If a cyst is inflamed, a previous one can be Puncture of the fluid be useful. An examination after the bacterial pathogens carried out and given the appropriate antibiotic. After the inflammation has formed, the cyst can be surgically removed.

The surgery can be either under local or general anesthesia be performed. In the case of lateral cysts that have a connection to the tonsils, the Almonds also removed become (see also: Remove the almonds). For medial neck cysts, it may be necessary to part of the hyoid bone to be removed if the cyst continues through a passage to get there. If a cyst with a fistula (Connection to the skin surface) exists, both must be completely removed.

After the operation, a tube (drainage) placed in the operating area so that blood and wound fluid can drain away. The hose can usually be removed after a few days. Complications of an operation can be secondary bleeding and impaired wound healing. Furthermore, nerves in the neck area can be injured.

Duration of an operation

The duration of surgery for a cervical cyst can be between 30 and 90 minutes be. A second operation, which may be necessary due to recurring cysts, is an exception and can take more time. The length of the hospital stay can vary greatly depending on the extent of the operation and the complications after the operation.

Prognosis after an operation

After an operation is a recurrence of a cyst cannot be ruled out. However, if the entire cyst (with a possible fistula) has been removed, the chances of not getting a new cyst are better than if a part is left in the body. Otherwise, no further follow-up is necessary for surgically removed neck cysts. However, if the swelling on the neck recurs, it is recommended to remove it to be examined by a doctor.

Can cervical cysts be cancerous?

Usually they are neck cysts harmless. However, you can ignite. In rare cases they can develop into cancer and become malignant. A middle cervical cyst, which is caused by a non-occluded thyroid duct, can contain thyroid tissue. This thyroid tissue can change and become cancerous. In this rare case cancer can develop.

Lateral cysts, which can arise from enlarged lymph nodes, can develop in this lymph node Lymph gland cancer (Lymphoma) developed. These malignant cells migrate through other tumors in the brain or in the neck area and collect there. Direct tumors of a lateral cervical cyst are extremely rare.

The risk of developing a lateral cervical cyst is higher than a middle one. It can be a Puncture the cyst and the removed fluid or tissue examined for malignant changes. Even during an operation, the surgeon can send parts of the cyst to the pathologist and have them examined for abnormalities.

Difference between central and lateral cervical cysts

The difference between central and lateral cervical cysts is in the Location of the cysts. Either the cyst arises in the midline of the neck (median) or laterally under a neck muscle (lateral). The causes of emergence also differ from each other.

Medium cervical cysts arise because of a non-occluding canalthat runs from the base of the tongue to the thyroid gland. This thyroid duct should recede before birth. If this is not the case, a cavity can develop in the center line of the neck. The tissue filling the cavity produces mucus and a cyst forms. Since medium-sized cervical cysts have a connection to the thyroid gland, thyroid tissue may be found in the cyst.

Lateral neck cysts, however, go away Wrong development of the throat viscera out. It can be remnants of what are known as the gill arches, structures of embryonic development. These should resolve before birth. If they do not do this, they can be the cause of lateral cervical cysts. Usually a lateral cyst develops due to a malformation of the second branchial arch. Another explanation for the development of a lateral cervical cyst is Epithelial inclusions in lymph nodeswhich are located on the side of the neck. However, the causes of lateral cervical cysts have not yet been conclusively clarified.

What is the difference to a neck fistula?

A Throat fistula is a weeping connection between a cervical cyst and the surface of the skin. If a throat cyst becomes infected, the pus it contains can drain through this connection. Unlike a cervical cyst, a cervical fistula is not a closed cavity with fluid, but rather represents a duct structure from the pharynx to the outer skin surface on the neck.

Read more on this topic at: Throat fistula

 

Additional information

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Quality assurance by: Dr. Nicolas Gumpert | Last change: 03.04.2021