|acrostic||A text that is based on the fact that the first letters, first syllables or words of successive lines of verse or stanzas form a unit of meaning or a separate sentence. Can in principle also appear in other genres, but is mostly found in songs or poems.|
|ballad||Usually it is a narrative poem with several stanzas. In other words, a text that is structured by verses and stanzas and characterized by rhymes, whereby there is often a fixed, but not predetermined, meter.|
The main characteristic of the ballad is that it is a hybrid of the literary genres: it includes both epic ones(telling a story), lyrical (formally a poem) as well as dramatic (Monologues, dialogues) Elements before.
|Chant royal||A special form of the French ballad. Is formed from five eleven-line stanzas, which often consist of ten-syllable verses, which mostly follow the scheme ababccddede and are rounded off by a final stanza. This follows the pattern ddede. All stanzas end on the same verse. Only five different rhymes are used, but they always use a different rhyme word. The chant royal was often allegorical.|
|Drápa||Is an old Norse song of praise, also hymn of praise, which sings about individuals or even entire tribes and has stanzas. The individual stanzas are based on the strictest form of the Old Norse skaldic poetry: the Dróttkvætt measure. Consists of introduction, middle section and conclusion. The middle section is characterized by refereeing rhymes. This form of poetry was particularly widespread in the 9th to 13th centuries.|
|elegy||Only valid in its original form as an independent poem form. Then means a poem that is written exclusively in distiches. A distich is a combination of a hexameter and a pentameter. Later the elegy was used as an umbrella term for (lament) poems.|
|Elf||Consists of five verses. The first verse consists of a noun; the second describes this more precisely with two words; the third line consists of three words that indicate what the noun does; the fourth line of verse shows a general thought on the subject, the last verse is a conclusion of the poem.|
|epigram||Was originally a short inscription on graves, buildings and gifts. An independent form of poetry developed from this. The epigram mostly consisted of distiches (a hexameter and a pentameter).|
The shortness of the poem is characteristic, as it usually has no more than four lines of verse. It is either a kind of epiphany, meaning it reflects a thought in a pointed and aptly manner, or it is written as a mockery poem and mocks a person, group or instance.
|The term primarily means a journalistic type of text. However, the word also describes a Spanish form of poetry that was mainly imitated in German Romanticism. The gloss usually deals with a philosophical or erotic content. It has four stanzas of ten verses each, which follow the rhyme scheme of the decimals (abba / ac / cddc).|
|Haiku||Is a traditional Japanese poem form. This consists of three word groups (verses) with five, seven and five sound units (these are called mores). In German, the sound units are often reinterpreted into syllables.|
However, the haiku is mostly implemented freely, which is why many haikus have fewer than 17 syllables. The first line of the haiku usually names a specific issue, often a season, and has a direct reference to the present, i.e. to the Here and now.
|anthem||This type of poem has no fixed form, which is why it is mostly implemented in free verse. The hymn is the festive praise, often singing about a deity. Nevertheless, there are examples that sing about localities or people. In terms of style, it therefore resembles the ode. In the course of a person's apotheosis(Deification of mortals) hymns are often used.|
|Canzone||Is a hybrid of song and ode, where it serves the serious and melancholy consideration of a situation. It consists of several longer but identically built stanzas, with a shorter closing stanza forming the end.|
In Middle High German, a canzone consisted of three parts, which were called stollen are designated. The first two tunnels were identical due to the external characteristics and were called Aufgesang, but the last part, the Abgesang, could be different. Metrically, the studs were the same.
|Concrete poetry||Actually, it does not count among the different poem forms, but is a certain way of writing poetry. Here the language no longer serves to describe a thing, but is used for representation itself. In a work the noun Apple be repeated, taking it by arranging the words themselves like a two-dimensional Apple looks like.|
|Didactic poem||Form of the poem that was widespread mainly in the Middle Ages and ancient times. The didactic poem is mostly moral and has a didactic character and can touch all areas of knowledge. Very often it consists exclusively of hexameters, although there are also examples that are formed from distiches (hexameters and pentameters). The number of stanzas and verses is not specified here.|
|song||A form of poetry that is structured in stanzas and is mostly characterized by a simple folk tone. Most of the time the rhyme scheme is continuous, with the verses being rather short. Often the sequence of stanzas is interrupted by a recurring word sequence (refrain).|
|limerick||Actually a nonsense verse, but it usually stands on its own and is therefore perceived as an independent type of poem. Is humorous, ironic, sometimes grotesque and always ends with a nonsensical end line. Consists in most cases of five Anapaestic verses with 3, 3, 2, 2, 3 accents and the rhyme scheme aabba.|
|madrigal||In literature, the madrigal is a form of poetry from 14th century Italian poetry. The poem usually consists, even if there are deviations, of two or three punches with three double verses and a subsequent refrain of two lines of verse that rhyme in pairs.|
|Ode||Odes are poems that praise something. They are divided into stanzas, but do not have a fixed rhyme scheme. In ancient times, odes mostly followed certain ode strophes that had a predetermined structure (Alkean, Sapphic or Asklepiadic odenstrophe).|
|Prose poem||Means a text type between prose and poem. The prose poem is an artfully structured and rhythmically-tonally designed prose, which differs from the lyric mainly in that end rhymes are missing and the speech is not bound by verses. A prose poem, however, is not only very rhythmic, but also visually powerful, which is why it is strongly permeated by lyrical design and stylistic devices, such as assonances, internal rhymes, etc.|
|Roundabout||Belongs to the poem forms that are mostly inconsistent and usually comprises eight lines. There are two different types of rondel, but both have in common that they play with repeating individual elements.|
In the first variant, each line consists of a short but complete sentence or a closed part of the sentence, which is supplemented by a subordinate clause in the second line. The sentence from the first verse is repeated on lines 4 and 7. The second line is repeated in the last verse. The verse lines 3, 5 and 6 are further additions or reinforce the main theme.
In the second popular variant of the roundabout, the lines do not have to contain complete sentences or sentence units. It is sufficient if, in order to be complete, the sentence is completed in the next sentence. In addition, the first, but rather the second line in line 4 and line 7 is repeated here. More repetitions are not a must.
|Sestine||This form of poetry consists of six stanzas, each characterized by six iambic lines of verse. The main characteristic of the sestine is that the rhyming words of the first stanza are kept in a fixed order. If you number the verses of the first stanza from 1 to 6, the sequence for the second stanza results 612345, for the third 561234, for the fourth 456123, for the fifth 345612 and for the sixth 234561.|
|So nice||Is a fourteen-line poem consisting of two four-line and two three-line stanzas. The quatrains are called quartets and the three-lined trios. It is characterized by the use of alternating (alternating raising and lowering) meter measures, mostly using the iambus. The rhyme scheme varies. Typical is an embracing rhyme in the quartet, with the triad mostly following the pattern cdc / dcd, cde / cde and ccd / eed consequences.|
|Vilanelle||Originally a simple farmer and shepherd song. Later, however, it was formed into the following poem form: no fixed number of stanzas, whereby there are usually four, which very often have 8 verses, which consist of seven or eleven syllables. The rhyme scheme mostly follows the pattern abababcc, so resembles the punch. The couple cc was often repeated across stanzas as a refrain.|