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Bloom County An annotated comic book translation
1 Zurich University of Applied Sciences Department of Applied Linguistics Institute for Translation and Interpreting Degree in Translation Diploma thesis by Thomas Zeller Bloom County An annotated comic translation Speaker: Simon Lenz M. A., dipl. Translator FH deadline: July 15, 2009
2 Abstract The main part of this thesis consists of a German translation of the US-American funny comic Bloom County Toons for our times by Berkeley Breathed, published in In order to establish basic translation strategies, a closer look has been taken at the various phenomena that may occur in comics. The main challenge with regard to translation has turned out to be the connection between verbal and nonverbal elements. This connection may cause translation problems if, for example, a pun (verbal element) is based on a visual element (nonverbal element). Since, while verbal content can be changed in translation, nonverbal elements cannot be altered, the translator can be confronted with heavy constraints: on the one hand, the translation of the verbal elements has to make sense in relation to the nonverbal elements; on the other hand, the number of characters of the target text must not significantly exceed the number of characters of the source text. Thus, two main strategies can be applied: compensation of the verbal element in question (e.g. a pun) in a different panel or deviation from the source text. The latter strategy can be divided into several subgroups and may lead to a complete deviation from not only the lexical or syntactic level but also from the semantic level to reach the same effect in the target text as intended in the source text. Moreover, the thesis discusses other translation problems that may occur in comics such as language varieties and slang words as well as other rhetorical devices. After an analysis of the source text, translation strategies have been established. Overall, those strategies have lead to the achievement of the same effect in the target text as intended by the source text author. However, the fact that the source text is 25 years old has made it necessary to provide the target text reader with a prologue. In a comment at the end, the various strategies are discussed in hindsight. It has been found that the translator sometimes has to disengage completely from the source text to reach the same effect in the target text and that alteration of the nonverbal elements should sometimes be considered if it helps to solve a translation problem.
3 Contents 1. INTRODUCTION TO THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Introduction to the subject of knowledge Comics Comics in literary studies Comics in translation studies Comics today Comics production worldwide Summary: Comics in science What are comics Assignment of comics Definition of comics Summary: Definition and demarcation of elements of the comics Visual elements panel , Gutter, speech bubbles Lettering Linguistic elements Narrative texts Dialogue texts Labels Onomatopoeia Summary: elements of comics Translation problems and strategies General translation methods The interplay between word and image Culture specifics in the visual area Culture specifics in the interplay between word and image 13
4 Equal effects in comics Word and character games Compensatory procedure Further translation problems in comics Poems Quotes Onomatopoeia Language varieties Space problem Summary: Problems of comic translation Source text analysis External text factors Text producer / sender Sender intention Recipient place and time pragmatics Summary: Text external factors Text internal factors Visual elements Comic characters Background Speech bubbles Lettering with regard to the text content culture specifics with regard to the text content figurative elements with regard to the text content internal situation 32
5 Culture specifics: Connections between word and image Culture specifics in the visual area Culture specifics in the linguistic area Connection between word and image Linguistic elements Colloquial elements Language varieties Differentiation of colloquial formulations Lexical stylistic devices Other lexical means Punctuation Onomatopoeia Summary: Internal text factors Strategies Invariance demands Instrumental versus documentary translation Requirements of time and place Target text recipient Writing Linguistic elements Language varieties Strategies and procedures Summary: Strategies Commented translation Foreword by the translator Source and target text Comment Pretext
6 5.2. Space problem Detractio for reasons of space Implication for reasons of space Other procedures for reasons of space Equal effect Repetitio Adiectio Explication Substitution Stylistic devices Quotations and pseudo-quotations Poem Colloquial elements Idioms Word and symbol games Lexical level Syntactic level Language varieties and spoken language Onomatopoeia Conclusion Closing words Bibliography Appendix 3..222 Appendix Appendix 3..222 Appendix Appendix 3..222
7 List of figures Fig. 1 (p. 7): Reading process in comics (Wild 1998) Fig. 2 (p. 13): Fig. 3 (p. 16): Fig. 4 (p. 17): Excerpt from the German translation by Les Frustrés (Bretécher 1989) Tim & Struppi. The treasure of Rackham the Red (p.4) / Tintin. Le Tresor de Rackham Le Rouge (p.2) from Kaindl 2004: 268 Tim & Struppi. Coal on board (p.41) / Tintin. Coke en stock (p.39) from Kaindl 2004: 269
8 1 1. INTRODUCTION Comic strips are an art form that has found its admirers since Wilhelm Busch's time. In contrast to Anglo-Saxon or French-speaking science, however, they were ignored for a long time in German-speaking science. Research in the field of comics is now also taking place in German-speaking countries. In this work, an annotated translation of the American anthology Bloom County Toons for our times by Berkeley Breathed (1984) into German is created. It is an anthology of so-called funnies. Funnies are comic strips that consist of comical elements and are mostly published in the features of daily or weekly newspapers. The plot of funnies usually takes place in four images (panels) and ends in a punchline in the last panel. The interesting thing about the strips from Bloom County is the strong relevance to people, events, etc. of the year. B. Calvin & Hobbes by Bill Watterson or Sherman s Lagoon by Jim Toomey, such allusions are hardly to be found. The latter two funnies are published in a German translation, while Bloom County does not have a German version (see Appendix 2). Doonesbury, for example, has a similar relevance to topicality as Bloom County. The Funnies by G. B. Trudeau have been published daily in various English-language newspapers since the 1970s. A German translation, however, only exists in the form of an anthology, also known as a comic book (Doonesbury Quite clever, the Chinese!), Which was published in 1984 by Carlsen Verlag. This comic book is aimed at comic fans who also have some interest in American politics. The translation of Bloom County Toons for our times is now intended to pursue the same purpose as the Doonesbury comic book, which has been translated into German and can serve as a template to a certain extent. The commented translation should therefore also retain the format and sequence of the source text (hereinafter referred to as AT). The action of the individual strips in the target text (hereinafter referred to as ZT) should also be left in the original context from 1983. Interventions in the visual elements, which could arise for reasons of space, should, however, be avoided as far as possible. The aim is to design the translation in such a way that the strips have a similar effect on the ZT reader as they do on the AT reader. Therefore, the aim is to find out which strategies have to be used in order to achieve this goal. The second chapter deals with various translation problems that can arise when translating funnies. Above all, it is the various aspects of the connection between word and image that can lead to translation problems.
9 2 he). Section defines what equality of effect is. In the following, various linguistic means such as word games, stylistic devices or onomatopoeia are dealt with. Language varieties are the topic from section The chapter closes with a discussion of the space problem that results from the immutability of the visual elements (). In Chapter 3, a text analysis of the AT is carried out. Only relevant text-external and text-internal factors are highlighted. The analysis relates to the findings made in the second chapter. In section 3.3. the strategies for the translation are drawn up. The fourth chapter consists on the one hand of a preface to the translation, on the other hand of AT and ZT. In the fifth chapter, interesting text passages and the methods used are commented on from a translational point of view. The closing words (Chapter 6) venture a look ahead and discuss the findings for comic research.
10 3 2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND In this section, the changes that comics have undergone in German-speaking countries will be discussed in more detail: from its social and scientific ostracism to the first comic-specific phenomena in literary studies and later in translation studies to comic research. This section concludes with a brief comparison of the global situation of comics. Introduction to the subject of knowledge Comics Comics were long considered trivial literature in the German-speaking world, both in general society and in literary and translation studies. In literary studies, for example, Manfred Welke described the linguistic elements occurring in comics as violations of good German (1958: 11). Such works show that comics were viewed as dubious, at least in the German-speaking world. Up until the early 1990s, no scientific discipline saw itself as responsible for this (Tischer 1994). Precisely because comics consist of two elements, namely image and language, it was believed that they could not be assigned to any linguistic research field, which led to comics not being viewed as an independent phenomenon for a long time, but rather with graphics and literature, for example , but were also associated with the mass media (Kaindl 2004) Comics in literary studies From today's perspective it may seem incomprehensible why science was so opposed to comics. One has to bear in mind, however, that literary scholars such as Welke (1958) examined comics for the complexity of sentences, rated them as low and thus saw the triviality of comics confirmed. The seemingly triviality of comics from today's perspective was the reason why no serious research was carried out in the field of comics. Schulte-Sasse (1976: 54) finally drew attention to the fact that clichéd sentence forms and simple sentence structures are also used in other types of text that are generally considered to be high literature. And before that, Zimmermann (1973: 8) recognized the relevance of the interplay of words and images in comics.
11 Comics in Translation Studies It was not until the 1980s that translation studies also found an interest in doing research in the field of comic translation. The first works were created that dealt with the connection between word and image (Grassegger 1985, Schwarz 1989). Grassegger recognized (1985) that comics can be distinguished from other written texts by the fact that comics are multimedia (multicodal) communication (quoted in Kaindl 2004: 82). The linguistic elements in comics, which range from dialogue texts and narrative texts to onomatopoeic elements, thus consist of one code, while the visual, i.e. all pictorial elements, consist of another code. It was thus recognized that comics have specific properties that must be taken into account when translating. From the second half of the 1990s onwards, thanks to the work of translation scholars such as Schmitt (1997) or Kaindl (1999, 2004, 2008), comics finally became the subject of study in translation studies Comics Today The scientific discussion of comics takes place today in the independent discipline of comic research. In Germany, the Society for Comic Research was founded in 2005, which combines disciplines such as literary studies, applied linguistics, art history, folklore, newspaper and history studies. Today comics are accepted socially and scientifically as an independent and demanding form of literature in German-speaking countries as well. Comics production worldwide In the USA, comics developed early on, that is, from their appearance as mass products in the 1930s, into an independent genre that evolved in form and form The content differed significantly from their European roots (Kaindl 2004: 138). In the European Francophone area, the development was again different than in the rest of Europe. There comics appeared as mass-produced goods at around the same time as in the USA and from then on were classified as literary and even referred to as neuvième art. The comic production ran differently in the different language areas. The USA, France and Belgium (today also Japan with its manga) are so-called export countries, which means that the lion's share of global comic production takes place in these countries. In contrast, German-speaking and Scandinavian countries
12 5 are considered to be importing countries because, in comparison, they only produce a few comics of their own, but obtain and translate them from the exporting countries. According to a study carried out at the beginning of the 1990s, 52 percent of the worldwide recorded publishers sell rights to comics to Germany (Kaindl 2004: 164, cf. Abret & Hennart 1991) Summary: Comics in science Comics did not receive the same status everywhere at the same time. Declared as trivial literature in German-speaking countries, comics became a widely accepted art form early on in France, Belgium and the USA, whereupon science there also expressed its interest in it. By the 1990s at the latest, comics were increasingly becoming a subject of science in the German-speaking world. The central point in comics is the interplay between words and images; this is multicodal communication. The following section attempts to provide a definition of comics What Comics are This section attempts to provide a definition of comics. As it turns out, it is difficult to distinguish the art form from other texts. Therefore, in the following, an attempt will be made to differentiate comics from other texts by expanding an existing definition.Assignment of comics Precisely because comic research is an interdisciplinary science (see), but also due to the abundance of different types of comics, a comprehensive definition of comics is difficult ( Kaindl 1999). For example, there are action comics that contain superhero or science fiction comics, western comics or humor comics that consist of comic elements such as funnies, and much more.As in Section 2.1. mentioned, comics can be assigned to literature as well as graphics. But the allocation to one direction involuntarily excludes one of the two aspects word and image. Only the term sequential art or in German sequential graphic, which was coined by comic artist Will Eisner (1985) in Anglo-Saxon literary studies, combines the linguistic and visual aspects of comics. The sequentiality, i.e. the successive sequence of images, also presupposes at least two images (panels), this in contrast to cartoons, which only consist of one panel (Schmitt 1997).
13 Definition of comics Using the term sequential graphic as a starting point, McCloud (1997) established the following definition, which is also accepted in German-language comic research and which is regarded as the basis for this work: Comics are pictorial or other characters arranged in spatial sequences, convey information and / or create an aesthetic effect on the viewer (: 17). For McCloud, the linguistic elements of a comic are considered signs with informational content and thus as part of the images themselves. Since this work is naturally intended to focus primarily on the linguistic elements, linguistic and visual elements become stronger in the sense of an expansion of the McCloud definition delimited from each other. The linguistic and visual elements should be viewed as mutually different but complementary elements due to the fact that the visual (pictorial) elements are immutable with regard to the translation process, but the linguistic elements require a translational action. The definition of McCloud and its expansion show the importance of the interplay of word and image. Although the visual elements cannot be changed in relation to the translation of comics, they must be taken into account in the translation process in the same way as the linguistic elements. Summary: Definition and demarcation In this section, comics were assigned to sequential graphics (Schmitt 1997). The definition of McCloud (), see, was expanded to the effect that the linguistic and visual elements were more clearly delimited than McCloud, who differentiates between figurative and other signs that convey information.The expansion of the definition is due to the fact that in the comic translation, the linguistic elements, as opposed to the visual elements, can be changed. The translator of comics is therefore primarily interested in the linguistic elements. From section 2.4. Discussing Elements of the Comics This section looks at the visual and linguistic elements. The two elements show the diversity of the multicodal form of communication.
14 7 First of all, Fig. 1 will explain how we read comics. Usually texts are read from left to right. With comics, however, the reading process is not linear to the same extent. Of course, comics are to a certain extent read from left to right, but our eyes jump back and forth between the visual and linguistic elements (see Fig. 1) Fig. 1: Reading process in comics (Wild 1998: 120) Visual elements The visual elements in comics include all pictorial elements: comic characters, background scenery, pictograms or so-called speed lines that signal movement, etc. But the writing (lettering) itself can also be seen as part of the image if you look at it regardless of its linguistic relevance with regard to its visual appearance Panel, gutter, speech bubble Panel is the name of a comic image that is usually framed in a square and represents a scene. The panel edge, also called gutter (McCloud: 74), not only defines the border for the panel, it also has a semiotic function. According to Schmitt, these gaps are temporal passages in which the reader creates text coherence through induction (1997: 658). McCloud puts it even more precisely. For him, the secret of comics [...] lies in the spaces between the images, where the imagination is stimulated to bring static images to life! (2001: 5). Depending on the shape, the panel edge lines represent a temporal or spatial dimension in which the reader has to think up the event for himself. Straight edge lines represent real time-space structures, while wavy lines represent dreams or situations in which the figure is thinking. The same applies to the speech bubbles that frame the dialogue texts. However, there are also comics in which the dialogue texts are not in
15 speech bubbles are framed. A thorn (McCloud) finally assigns the speech bubble to the respective speaker (comic figure). Lettering The way in which the writing (lettering) is presented in comics is of great importance regardless of its linguistic relevance. In addition, the original is often not drawn by the draftsman himself, but by the so-called letterer, in contrast to the machine letterer. The lettering by hand is in a certain sense (see) even seen as part of the picture itself. The different fonts, font sizes, font styles (bold, normal, etc.), spacing (narrow, wide, etc.) as well as the line spacing can provide various information about the respective speaker. For example, bold type and letter size are used to represent the volume. Pictograms are also used: musical notes for music, stars as symbols for pain, hearts for being in love, etc. That the visual representation of the linguistic elements is of great importance and cannot be ignored in the translation of comics, for example, underpins the following statement by Rota from translation studies: words in comics are first of all employed to represent and evoke feelings through the modulation of elements like their size, shape, color and disposition in space, all of which are graphic and extratextual elements (2008: 80). In addition to the prosodic function, lettering can also convey the speaker's emotional sensitivities.Linguistic elements The linguistic elements in comics can be divided into narrative texts, dialogue texts, labels and onomatopoeia. Narrative texts Narrative texts create a relationship to the reader and guide the story. Mostly they are set in square frames at the top of the panel. These linguistic elements are usually written in standard language. In addition to complex sentences, however, simple or even broken sentences often appear.
16 Dialogue texts Dialogue texts are the linguistic elements in the speech bubbles and appear in the form of dialogues or monologues. According to Kaindl, these elements are an artificial language, similar to the linguistic elements in the theater (2004: 239). He distinguishes the comic language from the real spoken language. The language has a high use of slang expressions up to and including terms from slang language. Rhetorical stylistic figures are numerous. Labels Labels include linguistic elements on signs, posters, slips of paper, in newspapers, etc. They often serve to convey information that would be difficult to visualize and usually consist of a few words, thus rarely forming a complete set of onomatopoeia Noise words (onomatopoeia) received little attention in translation studies for a long time (Kaindl 2004). Only with Poyatos (1994, 1997) was this field slowly opened up. Onomatopoeia are onomatopoeic elements and, according to Kaindl (2004), can be divided into four types: command words and interjections, e.g. Alarm, hurray, lot etc., which are conventionally formed and partly have an onomatopoietic expressive content; Derivations of nouns, verbs and new verbs, e.g. Sound, break, bell, grumble, etc., derived from conventional parts of speech with onomatopoietic expressive content; Made-up word formations, such as Groink, Roar, etc., which are formed on the basis of noise imitation; Loud gestures, which can consist of consonant clusters such as Bsss, Zzz etc. as well as vowel formations with a partial interjection character, such as Ah, Hihi etc., and which are formed as expressive or emotive phoneme formations. (Kaindl 2004: 249f) According to Havlik (1981: 23), the type of spoken noises can be divided into two areas: on the one hand, in figures that do not express noises but rather sounds, exclamations and imitated noises, on the other hand, in things that in turn express real noises reproduce Summary: elements of comics In summary, it can be said that comics consist of various linguistic and visual elements. The various linguistic elements can be such as
17 10 in the following section can cause a variety of translation problems: on the one hand purely in relation to the language, on the other hand in the interaction between word and image Translation problems and strategies In this section, various translation problems that can arise with comics are shown and possible strategies are suggested. First of all, Kaindls (2004) general translation methods offer a brief overview of possible strategies. After that, the connection between word and image will be discussed in more depth, with particular emphasis on cultural specifics. Then individual linguistic phenomena such as poems, onomatopoeia, language varieties are dealt with. Finally, the translator of comics is set certain limits by the immutability of visual elements (see) general translation methods Kaindl (2004), with reference to Delabastita (1989: 199ff; 1993: 33ff), distinguishes six categories of how to proceed in general when translating comics: The repetition describes those procedures in which source language / image / typographical elements are adopted in a formally identical manner. The adiectio includes those operations in which linguistic / pictorial / typographical material is added that was not available in the original, either as a replacement or as a supplement to the original material. During the detractio, parts of linguistic / pictorial / typographical elements are removed from the translation. The order or arrangement of linguistic / pictorial / typographical elements are changed by the transmutation process. Substitution means those translation actions in which the original linguistic / pictorial / typographical material is replaced by approximately equivalent target textual material. With the Deletio, not only parts, but entire linguistic / pictorial / typographical units (e.g. the entire text of a speech bubble, an entire panel) are removed. (Kaindl 2004: 285; emphasis added) These six methods from ancient rhetoric can be applied to various multicodal forms of communication, for example in film translation or in comic translation. The methods Transmutatio and Deletio are not relevant for this work. The Repetitio procedure is the formally identical transfer of the linguistic AT element into the ZT. It is therefore a non-translation (Delabastita
18: 200). The ZT can appear exotic or strange through the dominant use of the repetition (Kaindl 2004: 285). The Adiectio and Detractio procedures partially complement each other with the considerations that Schreiber makes in his work. Analogous to the Adiectio procedure, he mentions the addition procedure (1993: 228ff). However, he distinguishes this from the explication procedure, which consists of reproducing a certain fact in the target text more explicitly, i.e. more precisely. The added information must, however, already be implicitly available in the AT. The detractio procedure partly coincides with Schreiber's ommission. Here, too, he further delimits this process by the implication process, which expresses the facts in the target language in a more general, abstract way. The information that is left out in the ZT must, however, be easily accessible by the target text reader. The substitution procedure ultimately serves to replace the linguistic AT element with a semantically almost identical ZT element. In this respect, all translational actions that cannot be assigned to any of the other five methods can be subsumed under the substitution procedure, since it can be argued that a translation never occurs due to the fact that an AT language is replaced by a ZT language can be completely identical to the AT. However, one could divide the procedure substitution into different degrees: A slight degree of substitution would be, for example, if an AT element can be transferred identically into the target language on the syntactic level, for example. A medium degree of substitution would be, for example, if a proverb or an idiomatic phrase is replaced by a target-language equivalent that is equivalent to the AT version in terms of its semantic content. A strong degree of substitution would be if, on all possible levels (syntactic, lexical, pragmatic, semantic, etc.) the OT is deviated significantly in order to do justice to a certain linguistic situation. According to Kaindl (2004), if a translation shows a predominance of substitution, the text is increasingly adapted to the target culture and should not necessarily be recognized as a translation by the target text reader (kaindl 2004: 285). For these reasons, the substitution procedure is likely to be the most widely used of all procedures. Which procedures are ultimately to be used can only be said after a thorough analysis of the AT. With these considerations as a basis, individual translation problems as they occur in comics can be discussed in more detail below.
19 The interaction between word and image It is conceivable that at first glance one is tempted to translate only the text when translating comics. But this strategy falls short because, as we have already stated, the structure of comics consists of two systems, namely linguistic and visual elements. The function of the visual elements is not only illustrative, because without the linguistic elements the process of understanding fails. The action requires both (visual and linguistic) elements, so communication is multicodal (see). As a result, the two elements together form a kind of symbiosis, and the translator must always take both elements into account, especially when playing on words that are based on both elements. In the relationship between word and image there are also different degrees of differentiation. P.A. Schmitt (1997) distinguishes seven communicative-functional links between language and image: 1. Verbal text-heavy connections in which images only illustrate but do not contribute anything essential to the largely autonomous verbal text; 2. Image-heavy connections in which the verbal text is nothing more than the sound (soundtrack) to a sequence told in images; 3. redundant connections in which verbal text and image essentially (sic!) Deliver the same message; 4. additive connections in which the verbal text reinforces the image or, conversely, the image or explains the verbal text in more detail; 5. parallel connections in which the verbal text and image in the current panel have no recognizable relationship to one another (this can of course emerge later); 6. Montage connections, where verbal text is an integral part of the image; 7. Correlative connections in which verbal text and image mutually support each other in order to convey the ideas that each means of expression alone could not (or not so well) articulate (Schmitt 1997: 630f). Recognizing one or more of these seven connections between word and image plays a crucial role in the translation process, for example if linguistic and visual elements cannot be understood in the target language due to cultural reasons. In the following two sections some examples are given. Culture specifics in the visual area The western culture area (as well as other cultures) is interspersed with numerous visual culture specifics. Since certain visual phenomena cannot be understood outside the relevant cultural area, special attention must be paid to every visual detail, no matter how small, when translating comics. Because the fact that there is no universally understandable imagery can, for example, be based on the facts
It should be made clear that in our culture a zebra is primarily recognizable by its stripes, while in other cultures it is first identified because of its donkey-like shape, otherwise it would be difficult to distinguish the zebra from the likewise striped hyena ( Kaindl 2004: 190f; after Eco 1987). According to Kaindl (2004), visual signals can also be culture-specific between similar cultures and can therefore no longer be correctly interpreted outside the respective language community. There is a possibility that the gestures and facial expressions (Fig. 2) from the French comic Les Frustrés (The Frustrated 4) by Claire Bretécher are not understandable to a German-speaking reader. Because in France, when taking an oath, the hand is lowered with outstretched fingers and spat out at the same time. In German-speaking countries, the hand is raised to take an oath. If the gesture is misinterpreted, the relation to the linguistic text remains unclear (Kaindl 2004: 182). In cases like Fig. 2, the correlative connection between text and image can become an almost insoluble problem for the translator. Fig. 2: Excerpt from the German translation of Les Frustrés (Die Frustrierte 4) by Claire Bretécher (Kaindl 2004: 183) Since, according to Kaindl, there is no pictorial Esperanto and analogies with images do not simply have to be created but learned, the translator can use it conclude that the translation of comics also requires cultural and conventional knowledge on the level of image design and use in order to act holistically, both on a verbal and non-verbal level (2004: 192) The same problem arises with linguistic elements: either the ZT reader has the culture-specific knowledge or not. The difference, however, is that, in contrast to the visual elements, the linguistic elements
21 14 te can be adapted to the target culture through the translational action. When translating, special attention must be paid to whether there is a connection between culture-specific elements in the linguistic and visual areas. If this is the case, the translator must take both aspects into account, otherwise there may be contradictions between the word and the image. This is the case, for example, in the aforementioned comic book Les Frustrés (The Frustrated 4), whose translation from French into English uses a strategy of complete adaptation of linguistic cultural specifics. All elements from French culture, e.g. B. Political institutions have been adapted to the British one. This creates a tension between word and image, as the visual elements still represent French culture. This can lead to confusion for ZT readers (Kaindl 2004: 90). It must therefore be assessed what knowledge is available in relation to culture specifics with the corresponding ZT reader. The corresponding translation strategy can then be derived from this. Since cultural specifics are always changing, the question of the topicality of the topic may also have to be included in the assessment. According to Würstle, for example, a strategy could be to [replace] culture-specific units of an AS [= source-language] text  by analogous elements of the target culture only if they play a subordinate role for the sense of the text and can thus avoid annotations that disrupt the flow of reading (1991: 160).According to Würstle, the culture-specific elements that play a key role in the sense of the text should be left in the ZT using the Repetitio procedure. Nor does it completely exclude the use of documentary means when it promises the ZT reader certain interpretation aids (1991: 160). Based on Nord (2009), documentary means are used for documentary translations and consist, among other things, of footnotes and comments in the text or in the form of a foreword by the translator. In contrast to this is the instrumental translation, which gets by without such means. As an example for the application of documentary elements, Würstle again cites Fig. 2 (see), in which the scene in the target culture can only be understood through a note. Important information on culture specifics could also be given in the form of a foreword, for example. The German translation of the comic book Doonesbury (Pretty clever, the Chinese!) By G. B. Trudeau (1984), for example, uses this procedure. In this way, the documentary elements mentioned in the ZT could be bypassed. However, all translation problems with regard to cultural specifics are unlikely to be eradicated by this either. Therefore, according to Würstle, it may be necessary to go to one
22 15 to partially renounce semantic invariance in favor of text coherence (1991: 163). When translating comics, linguistic elements between AT and ZT do not necessarily have to be equivalent to one another on the semantic level, in contrast to the visual elements, which are unchangeable, i.e. completely equivalent to one another between AT and ZT. The fact that in the linguistic area the equivalence between AT and ZT does not necessarily have to be given on other levels, for example, underpins the statement by Schmitt, who says that when translating comics it is often  not important that AT and ZT formulations are equivalent to one another in some way (lexical, semantic, pragmatic) - it is crucial that in the ZT image, verbal text and (intended) situation fit together (1997: 648). The process that fulfills the above criteria is substitution. This could therefore be applied to culture-specific units that play a major role, whereby the culture-specificity is lost, but the flow of reading is not impaired by annotations or footnotes that may be disruptive When translating comics, it is not the equivalence between AT and ZT that is decisive, but that word, text and situation also fit together in the ZT in the manner intended in the AT, one could also speak of an invariance requirement 1 for equality of effect, which must always be met . It remains to be defined what equality of effect actually is. Again, this is difficult because, as mentioned in section, there are different types of comics. The effect of superhero comics is not comparable to the effect of funnies. Since this work is heading towards the translation of a funny comic, the equality of effect is understood in relation to humor comics. So the effect relates to the comic elements in comics. Achieving equal effects means that in the ZT the intended comedy of the OT works, that is, the corresponding punch line, but also comic elements that serve to build up the punch line. Based on these statements, it can be said that the various connections between word and image present the translator of comics with certain challenges.1 Albrecht (1987b) understands invariance, logically and statically, to be the tertium comparationis of translation, procedurally speaking, that which What should be preserved in the translation is what should remain the same (quoted in Schreiber 1993: 30). The term is therefore to be compared with the term of equivalence. The highest-ranking invariant or invariance requirement can also change within a text if, for example, depending on the situation, the denotative, connotative, text normative, pragmatic or formal invariance requirement is to be met.
23 16 can, especially when culture-specific elements are involved. One possible strategy is the use of documentary elements. On the other hand, AT and ZT formulations do not necessarily have to be equivalent to one another if the intended effect of the AT can still be achieved in the ZT. The latter strategy speaks in favor of the substitution procedure, which is particularly likely to be used in word and drawing games, poems or quotations, as will be explained in more detail in the following sections. The requirement for equality of effect has emerged as the highest-ranking requirement for invariance. In the following, all findings relate to humor comics. Word and drawing games. Word games can be numerous in comics as well as in similar types of text (e.g. in literary texts). In addition to the purely linguistic level of play on words, the connection between word and image must always be taken into account when translating comics. It is precisely in this context that not all invariance requirements can often be met, for example if the requirement to preserve the denotative content has to be sacrificed in favor of the requirement for equal effectiveness, because, according to Koller, fulfilling the requirement for the denotative content could increase the linguistic effort considerably, for example by means of commenting translation processes (: 228), for example in the form of paraphrases that disrupt the flow of reading. This in turn could lead to the fact that precisely the highest invariance requirement for equality of effect is not fulfilled. Grassegger differentiates between text-internal word games that only consist of linguistic elements, including, for example, homophony, paronymy, literal interpretation of idioms, word games from proper names, etc. and text-external word games that are also based on visual elements and therefore only work in the interplay between word and image ( 1985: 33f, cf. Kaindl 2004: 185f, 265). Kaindl (2004) gives the following example from Tintin (Fig. 3) as a text-external, image-dependent play on words: Fig. 3: Tintin Le Tresor de Rackham Le Rouche / Tintin & Struppi The treasure of Rackham des Roten (Kaindl 2004: 268)
24 17 The advertising text on the advertising pillar becomes a play on words, as Captain Haddock, absorbed in his newspaper, bumps his head against the pillar, whereupon the statement La dépêche sont des information qui can be taken literally. The translation deviated from the OT in that the play on words was based on the subject of advertising in the morning post. Anyone who advertises in the Morgenpost has a resounding success (Kaindl 2004). Kaindl (2004) has meanwhile further differentiated word games. According to him, there are five different types: word games consisting purely of linguistic signs with non-verbal signs, word games based on non-verbal signs, word games based on verbal signs, non-verbal sign games based purely on non-verbal elements. (Kaindl 2004: 264f) These five categories again show, similar to the seven communicative-functional linkages between language and image (see), that the translator must always be careful not only to act translationally on a linguistic but also on a visual level. Kaindl gives the following example as a visual drawing game supported by linguistic symbols: Fig. 4: Tintin Coke en stock / Tim & Struppi coal on board (Kaindl 2004: 269) The drawing game refers to the picture Radeau de la Méduse by Théodore Géricault, the shows a raft with the castaways of a ship called Méduse. Haddock promptly sits a jellyfish (French: méduse) on his head. Tim supports the drawing game with a play on words in which he draws attention to Géricault's picture. In the
In the translation, a cynical comment by Tim was inserted, which is based on a visual element (Haddock has his mouth full of water) (Kaindl 2004) Compensatory method Grassegger (1985) suggests in situations in which a play on words only translates with a great loss of effectiveness can be used to apply a compensatory method. This procedure consists in deleting the pun in question in the original place and in another place where there is none, but there is a possibility to insert one. Harvey (1995) supports this strategy in his work on the translation of the Astérix series into English. He thus refers to Baker (1992), who regards the process as a technique to compensate for the loss of effectiveness of a certain point in the AT at another point in the ZT. The compensation or the compensatory method is therefore a strategy that serves to compensate for the loss of an effect in the AT by means of the so-called mean of offset equivalence (Schmitt 1997: 650). While the process itself is generally used constantly when translating, for example by compensating a noun of the AT in the ZT with a verb, and thus to a certain extent represents a form of substitution, it should be more narrowly defined for the scope of this work: Compensatory approach means that a linguistic means (e.g. a play on words) is neutralized at the relevant point, i.e. that in a play on words only the semantic level, but not the formal level, is translated, and that afterwards as compensation in another panel in Sometimes a similar effect is created with the help of linguistic means from the target language. Depending on how different the source and target language are, the compensatory method could be useful with regard to word and symbol games. However, this requires a certain degree of creativity from the translator, and last but not least, the boundaries between translation and adaptation flow into one another. Of course, the compensatory method could also be used for all other translation problems. Further translation problems in comics Comics can also be viewed as complex types of text in which different types of text are embedded. For example, poems, quotations, news texts, inscriptions on signs (labels), messages, etc. can appear in comics. The following two sections cover poems and quotes in comics. Then we will focus on onomato-
26 poems, language varieties and the problem of space that results from the immutability of text frames (speech bubbles, labels, narrative frames), entered poems When translating poems, the question arises as to which invariance requirement has to be met. The translator must decide whether the requirement to preserve the denotative content, the connotative content or the rhyme should be met. With regard to the rhyme, for example, a requirement for invariance according to the denotative content must inevitably be dispensed with. Schopenhauer (1891/1963: 103, cf. Jakobson 1959/66: 238) was also of the opinion that poems cannot be translated, but only rewritten, which is always unfortunate (quoted in Schreiber 1993: 46). According to Schreiber, the difficulty in translating poems lies in the fact that the form of the text is closely related to the individual language in question, at least more closely than the content. An absolute invariance of all formal elements is therefore of course excluded (1993: 46). Formal elements, such as the rhyme, can often only be retained by cutting back on the content area. The simultaneous preservation of the connotative content and the rhyme should, however, be achieved with a little creative flair. Which strategy is to be used depends on the intended effect of the poem in the corresponding text situation. Quotations Quotations as well as word and symbol games can be highly culture-specific if they are quoted from everyday culture, for example. Richet (1993) examined citations in the Astérix series from the point of view of equivalence. He recognized two possible translation strategies. Firstly, quotations from works that are equally known in the source and target culture could easily be translated with their target language equivalent. Kaindl (2004) contradicts this in part by saying that although the same work is quoted in the source and target language, this does not mean that the same quotations have found their way into the language equally in both cultures. Richard's second strategy is to replace a quote from the source culture with another quote from the target culture that has the same or a similar meaning using the substitution procedure. Of course, other strategies, such as the compensatory method, could also be used here.
27 Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia has been used in the literature since Rabelais (Kaindl 2004). In comics, for example, they can be used to support phenomena that are represented visually, or even as a replacement for visual elements. They also take up a not inconsiderable part of the linguistic elements of comics. In addition, they can be highly culture-bound. P.A. Schmitt (1997) identified five possible strategies in connection with the translation of onomatopoeia: 1. Retouch the AS version without replacement 2. Keep the AS version 3. Keep the AS version and print over a ZS version 4. Keep the AS version and one Next print out the ZS version 5. Retouch the AS version and replace it with the ZS version (Schmitt 1997: 637) The fact that onomatopoeia can be generally understood and that they can easily be deduced from the context and therefore do not have to be translated was already established at the beginning of the 1990s Years refuted in the study mentioned in section (Kaindl 2004: 164, cf. Abret & Hennart 1991). When translating funnies, for example, according to Kaindl (2004), unlike superhero comics, they are mostly replaced by the ZS version despite the greater financial outlay. Of course, the technical as well as the economic effort of any retouching always play a role in this question. Onomatopoeia are often chosen arbitrarily in the actual onomatopoeic sense and do not correctly reproduce the noise that they would set to music in reality (e.g. new creations such as grumble to express disgust or made up words such as hum to set engine noise to music). Kaindl also thinks that with regard to onomatopoeia there is always a certain degree of arbitrariness (2004: 248). Animal sounds or reaction sounds (e.g. coughing, wheezing or laughing) would be represented by very different onomatopoeia depending on the language. With regard to invariance requirements, one could also speak of an invariance requirement for equality of effect in onomatopoeia. Achieving the same effect when translating onomatopoeia therefore means that the corresponding noise in the ZT is verbalized by a version customary in the target culture.
28 Language varieties In comics, the language itself is also culture-specific in places, especially in the dialogue texts. Some cartoon characters speak a social or dialect. Dialogue and narrative texts can also have more or less colloquial elements. By using various linguistic means, an attempt is made to imitate the spoken language. On the one hand, various slang terms and expressions are used (toilet for toilet, English the John), on the other hand, the spelling can be changed (want for want you, English wanna). In addition, various rhetorical figures such as ellipses, sentence breaks, repetitions, etc. are used. In addition, the comic language is characterized by a high use of particles such as shading and conversation particles or interjections (this also includes onomatopoeia). The comic language differs from the spoken language or its written language in that its speakers (the comic characters) are not based on any real people (this is also the case, for example, with parodies of well-known personalities) whose actual wording has been transcribed. According to Kaindl, comic language is more of an artificial language (2004: 239), similar to dialogue in stage plays. Different ways in which this artificial language can be marked linguistically are dealt with in the text analysis () and in the comment (see 5.4.). According to Schmitt (1997), two possible strategies can be identified specifically with regard to the translation of socio-dialects and dialects. The first is to use Standard German, i.e. the standard language, for the socio-dialects and dialects of the source language in the target language. The text segments are reduced to their denotative content. The second strategy is to replace a social or dialect of the source language with a (mostly) arbitrarily selected target language equivalent. In the comic La Foire aux Immortels by Bilal (1990), which was translated from French into German, some of the lowest Parisian population had a Berlin dialect in the German translation. Kaindl criticizes the fact that the story takes place in a visually and linguistically presented Parisian context. This creates a contradiction between the linguistic and the visual level. However, which strategy makes sense in comic translation can only be said after a comprehensive AT analysis. Here, however, the question arises again whether the linguistic varieties play a major role in fulfilling the invariance requirement for equality of effect or not. However, it can be assumed that this is precisely why they are used in humor comics to create comedy. This would therefore
29 driving Substitution speaking, after which the linguistic varieties of the AT are replaced by a target-language equivalent. Space problem Finally, there is a problem in the translation of comics that has not yet been addressed in this work. It is about the space problem that results from the given size of the speech bubbles, narrative text frames and other limitations in the panel. According to Schmitt, the fact that the speech bubbles are adapted to the target text is a special case of comic translation, as the effort involved is very high (1997: 636). Due to the fact that the size of the respective visual elements is not changed in most comic translations, the translational possibilities are also significantly restricted. Schmitt describes the translational process that results from this as area-restrictive translating (1997: 636). The number of characters in the ZT must not exceed that of the AT, or not significantly exceed that, as otherwise the text only fits into the relevant place in the panel by adjusting the font size, which in turn would affect the prosodic elements (see). The limits that arise can also be compared, for example, with those of the film subtitles. In spite of the invariance requirement for a maximum number of characters, the invariance requirement for equality of effect must not be disregarded here either. However, since the highest-ranking invariance requirement cannot always be reconciled with the area-restrictive translation, the strategy of allocating the characters inevitably means that certain losses in terms of content must be accepted, especially in the translation from English into German, since the number of letters from German lexemes is on average higher than their English counterparts. The challenge of translating humor comics from English into German is therefore to reconcile the two invariance demands for equality of effect and for a maximum number of characters. Summary: Problems of comic translation The translation problems that the translator of comics is confronted with , are manifold. On the one hand, they concern the connection between word and image, whereby cultural specifics in the linguistic as well as in the visual area play a role. On the other hand, the translation problems concern linguistic elements such as word and symbol games, poems, quotations or onomatopoeia. The language of comics is also culture-specific
30 23 itself, which can be expressed, for example, through socio-dialects or dialects. Finally, the comics translator is also limited in terms of the number of characters that result from the unchangeable size of the visual elements. In addition to the six procedures by Kaindl (2004) Repetitio, Adiectio, Detractio, Transmutatio, Substitutio and Deletio and the two advanced procedures by Schreiber (1993) Explication and Implication, the compensatory procedure offers a possible approach to dealing with problems that arise in the Translation of comics can result. Which strategies should be used in each case can only be justified after a thorough analysis of the AT. The highest-ranking invariance requirements have emerged as the requirement for equality of effect and the requirement for a maximum number of signs. In the third chapter, a text analysis of the comic book Bloom County Toons for our times is carried out.
31 24 3. Source text analysis In the following, the text-external and text-internal factors of the AT are analyzed using the W-questions according to Nord (2009: 40) based on the Lasswell formula. Only points relevant to this work are dealt with. The AT is the comic book Toons for our times, first published in April 1984, which is an anthology of selected daily strips (hereinafter also referred to as DS) that were originally published in 1983 in the American daily Washington Post . The two comic books Doonesbury, Quite clever, die Chinesen !, Translation from English (Trudeau 1984) and Strizz, The First Year (Reiche 2004) serve as parallel texts. After a brief introduction to the text producer and his intention, the focus is primarily on the AT recipients, which can be divided into three different groups, as well as on the associated place and time pragmatics. Finally, the AT is compared with similar types of text. Text producer / broadcaster Guy Berkeley Berke Breathed is an American comic strip artist. In addition to his work as a comic artist, the Pulitzer Prize winner, who was born in Los Angeles on June 21, 1957, is also an author and illustrator of children's books, a director and screenwriter. His first regularly published comic strip was The Academia Waltz, which appeared in the Daily Texan newspaper in 1978 and already contained characters from Bloom County. On December 8, 1980, the first Bloom County strip appeared in the Washington Post daily, Breathed ended the comic series, but subsequently continued some characters in the strips Outland (until 1995) and Opus () (Breathed 2008) broadcasters intention Determining the sender's intention is fundamentally difficult. On the one hand due to the fact that the so-called Daily Strips (published on working days, in contrast to the Sunday Specials, which contain more panels and are published in color) originally appeared in the feature section, i.e. in the entertainment section of the Washington Post, on the other hand because of their dominance however, the author is likely to be pursuing comic elements
32 25 have to entertain the readers of the Strips. The author tries to achieve this through political, socially critical and various other topics. Political are, for example, all the strips that deal with the topic of election campaigns (DS41ff), in which the Meadow party runs its own presidential candidacy with unsuitable candidates. Presumably the entertainment of the reader was also in the foreground with these political strips, as in DS123, in which the absurdities of a presidential election campaign are shown (bribes, alcohol abuse, inability of the candidates). A socially critical topic can be found in DS55, in which Michael Binkley is replaced by a computer. In the early 1980s, computers were increasingly used in the world of work, which meant that many jobs were superfluous. Perhaps the author also wanted to stimulate thought, for example in DS61, in which the whole Meadow troop watches the news on TV and has to discover that the conflicts between Irish and British, Arabs and Jews, etc. are still ongoing. The mood among the figures is then very depressed, whereupon they take a break in a dandelion field. In the opinion of the translator, the break should be symbolic of a criticism of the conflicting parties, and even of the international community, that no real efforts have been made to break this vicious circle of hatred and to make peace. In DS18 the author's opinion is strongly expressed, because the gun fanatic speaks incorrectly and incompletely, which should indicate his low intelligence. The author obviously considers ardent defenders of the right to own guns to be people of low intelligence. On the one hand, the sender's intention could be compared with that of literary texts whose dominant function is expressive and whose intentions are not conventionalized (Nord 2009: 54) and can therefore be varied. On the other hand, one could at least partially speak of the text type comment, since an appelative function can also be discerned in places. This comes to the fore in DS47, for example, in which the leading article takes the side of the opposition and wants to point out deficiencies in American society, which, despite the popularity of Reagan at the time, were of course in a completely exaggerated way. President Reagan is arbitrarily held responsible for all kinds of problems (herpes, potholes, transvestites and even hair loss). Or in DS62, in which the independent Meadows Party first loses its favorite John Glenn to the Democrats and finally has to admit that Reagan's economic policies (Reaganomics) actually seem to work.
33 26 This mixture of comical elements and commentary means that the OT can also be placed close to satire. There are also numerous allusions to politicians, officials and personalities from film and television from that time, which are presented in a satirical way, since all these people are portrayed in a less favorable light, and even mostly to some omissions or Character weaknesses of the people are pointed out. This is achieved through exaggeration (hyperbole) and irony. For example in DS 109, in which Dan Rather, a famous television journalist of the time, broadcasts an absurd report about himself in which he accuses himself of lying. Since a clear assignment of the OT to a text type (literature, commentary, satire, etc.) is not possible, one could also speak of the text type funnies, which combines all of the properties mentioned. This term, which is primarily the general term for this specific genre of comics, is therefore also used in the scientific context of this work. Last but not least, the term funnies gives a clear indication of the sender's intention: funnies are funny in nature, they want to amuse the reader. In general, it can be concluded from this that the OT, as the result of an individual creation process, pursues the intention of entertaining the reader on the basis of linguistic and visual comic elements. The AT recipients are defined in more detail below. Recipients The AT recipients can be divided into three groups. The first recipients of the comic strips were the readers of the serious and discerning daily newspaper Washington Post. Back then (as now), they were mostly critical and educated readers and, in relation to Switzerland, can roughly correspond with the readers of the Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ) be compared. The recipients at the time could therefore be expected to understand the allusions to the political and social phenomena. Since the AT is now a comic book, more precisely an anthology, which is also still available on the comic market today, the second group of recipients (recipients of the comic book after its first publication in 1984) is likely to be different from the The first group of recipients was on the one hand a little smaller, on the other hand it was mainly composed of comic strip lovers. In addition, the second recipient of the AT is likely to have been politically interested, educated (in the broadest sense) and at least one young adult.
34 27 The third group of recipients is made up of present-day readers of comic books. This group of recipients is likely to differ from the first two in that the readers can hardly relate to the events of that time. The OT is still not accompanied by an explanatory foreword, as is the case, for example, with the two parallel texts (Strizz and Doonesbury). Thus, with regard to presuppositions, much more is expected of the third AT recipients than the first two, because the world has changed a lot in this quarter of a century (end of the cold war, change of government, etc.). The culture-specific features that characterized the situation of the original AT are therefore no longer the same pragmatics of place and time. The plot of the comic strips takes place in the fictional American town of Bloom County. The individual daily strips were first published in 1983 in the Washington Post. Allusions in the text refer, for example, to the primary elections (autumn 1983) of the presidential elections or to the Hitler diaries published in the German magazine Stern from April 28, 1983 and exposed as falsified on May 5, 1983. At the time of the first publication of the comic book in April 1984, the connection to the daily news was no longer so strong. Since the strips originally appeared in the Washington Post, they were probably produced for one-time use. When the strips were syndicated and finally combined in an anthology, the author also had to be aware that the strip would reach a wider audience than just the Washington Post readers. Nevertheless, although some of the strips are unrelated to specific real events (e.g. DS33, in which Opus replies to a personal ad, or DS110, in which the game of spin the bottle is about), the author was primarily introduced to an American audience. Since the Bloom County's comic strips are particularly topical, the question inevitably arises whether and what kind of translation can be motivated at all. Should it be documentary or instrumental or even both together? It should be inevitable to draw the ZT recipient's attention to the pragmatics of time, for example in the form of a foreword. Of course, this has a particular influence on the translation strategies to be used.
35 Summary: External Factors The OT tries to make the reader laugh through comical elements. The amusement of the reader is generated through allusions to political and socially critical issues and through various linguistic means, as will become clear in the following sections. Due to the fact that the AT is so up-to-date, today's third group of recipients differs significantly from the first two, which can lead to translation problems in terms of time pragmatics. Finally, due to its proximity to literature, commentary and the genre satire, the OT can be assigned to the independent text type Funnies. The following section deals with the text-internal factors. Text-internal factors In this section, the text-internal factors are analyzed. The internal text factors also include visual elements. After briefly addressing these, the topics of the individual strips are dealt with in more detail and conclusions are made regarding cohesion features, cultural specifics and pictorial elements that refer to the text content. Then the culture-specific elements in the AT in the linguistic and visual areas are discussed, which pose various translation problems for the translator. The microstructure then deals with the connection between word and image and the resulting problems. With the linguistic elements, the various aspects of the comic language (slang formulations, language varieties) and lexical stylistic devices such as rhetorical figures, word games, onomatopoeia, etc. are highlighted. Visual elements The visual elements consist of the comic characters, the background and the lettering. The cartoon characters have to be further delimited here, because on the one hand they are visual elements due to the fact that they appear in drawn form. On the other hand, however, many character traits of the characters are mainly conveyed through linguistic elements, such as the irresponsibility and machismo of Steve Dallas (e.g. DS93). The comic characters are therefore also part of the text content, as they can provide information on the topic. In the following section, however, they will be treated in a purely visual form.
36 comic characters With a few exceptions, the characters remain the same. The main characters are: Milo Bloom: a smart boy and reporter for the Bloom Beacon newspaper. Michael Binkley: a thoughtful boy who often drifts into philosophy. Opus: a good-natured but naive penguin. Portnoy: a nagging, intolerant marmot. Hodge-Podge: a politically conservative rabbit. Steve Dallas: actually a lawyer, although you almost never see him doing his job. His completely irresponsible behavior contradicts his profession: he is a drinker, macho and egoist. Yaz Pistachio: the uptight niece of Bobbi Harlow, Steve's ex-girlfriend. Cutter John: Vietnam Veteran, Anti-War Protestor, and Trekkie. Limekiller: a former homeless man who runs for the Meadow Party as a presidential candidate Background The scenes take place in the fictional small town of Bloom County. The individual scenes often take place in the same places, for example on Milo's meadow, on the editorial office of Bloom Beacon (the local newspaper), in the local bar, including speech bubbles. The specialty of the OT is that the dialogue texts are not framed by a speech bubble . Only a thorn assigns the text to the respective speaker. The fact that there is often much more space available for linguistic elements in the panels than is actually used suggests that the text-free space was deliberately left text-free and that this should in no way be used as a justification for this space in the ZT to use for longer formulations. The intended effect could fail. Lettering Lettering in AT shows a high degree of variation in terms of font size, font style (bold, normal) and spacing (narrow, wide). For example, bold type provides information about the speaker's prosody.
37 Topic Since the AT is not a single coherent text but rather several individual texts or daily strips, which also include continuing stories (e.g. the life of Steve Dallas, see DS35ff, or the falsified Elvis diaries , see DS86ff) are each self-contained, each strip must be considered separately. The topic has to be determined anew with every single strip.The OT must therefore be divided into several small, strictly speaking, independent texts (of course, they still depend on one another, for example by conveying additional information, character traits, information from the youth, etc. about the characters with each daily strip for example obviously with the character Steve, who is always unsuccessful when trying to flirt, as it turns out in the course of the OT). Another common feature is the fact that every strip ends with a punchline. In addition to the punch line, which is usually built up in the first three panels and takes place in the last panel, funnies can also contain several partial punch lines, such as in DS94, in which the punch line runs through all four panels to a certain extent. Steve's ignorance already triggers a certain punch line in the second panel (he brings Yaz a withered bouquet instead of a boutonniere), while the isotope level of fairy tales runs through all four panels, which also creates a certain comedy. Finally, the punch line in the last panel, that Steve only organizes this comedy for the sake of the money, no longer stands out strongly from the preceding comic elements, since Steve's answer again operates with the isotopic level of fairy tales, which was already used in the previous panels. Due to the large number of strips (150), each individual strip is not discussed here. In general it can be said that the author always tries to amuse the reader with the help of comical elements. He achieves this by addressing the political and social events of 1983 on the one hand and building the punch line on them. On the other hand, he lets the characters get into comical situations in their everyday life without any connection to real events related to the time. For example in DS107, in which Opus runs out of hot water while shaving because the dishwasher is running. This strip is not based on real events, but only tries to create comedy through the pictorial element of Opus, who waddles wet through the hallway, and his statement that he has only finished shaving one knee. On the one hand, this is, to a certain extent, situation comedy (the way Opus waddles through the hallway), on the other hand, Opus' statement breaks the reader's expectations, as it seems extremely absurd for a penguin to shave its knees.
38 31 In places, the allusions contained in the linguistic elements can only be understood if the subject matter contained in the visual elements is recognized. This is the case in DS21, for example, in which the naming of the body size (6 3 = approx. 2 meters) is only funny because the speaker's visual representation contradicts it. And in DS72 the extent of the environmental disaster only becomes apparent when the giant cockroach appears in the last panel. Cohesion features with regard to the text content Linguistic cohesion features can also refer to the content of the individual strips. For example, in the case of a story that extends over several strips, a brief summary of the previous events is given in the first panel (DS139: Milo dreams of being a syndicated cartoonist ... or DS74, in which the events of the previous strips are summarized in the first panel) . However, there are also features of cohesion between daily strips that can only be understood if one has actually read the strip referred to by text deixis. For example in DS40, in which Steve Dallas’s alter ego says: so that's your life history. The demonstrative pronoun refers to the series The making-of an American stinker, which was discussed in the previous strips. However, without knowledge of this, DS40 cannot be understood. Finally, there are also cohesion features within individual daily strips. In DS55, for example, the pronoun he (her) is a cataphoric cohesion feature that refers to the computer in the last panel, or in DS56, in which Michael Binkley in the last panel answers that s immoral, by which he means Norma's statement in the previous panel . It is therefore an anaphoric cohesion feature. Characteristics of cohesion must always be considered, taking into account the connection between word and image. In DS68, for example, it is perhaps not clear to a German-speaking reader that the office of American Vice President is viewed by some Americans as extremely inferior, and almost even inferior to the profession of used car dealer (see also). All references to real people (William Casey, DS130), events (elections, DS41, etc.) or institutions (EPA, DS71) also count as culture-specific elements.
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