How do potatoes grow eyes
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What are potatoes? Thank you for your interest in our potatoes. THE POTATO PLANTBotanyThe potato (Solanum tuberosum) belongs to the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Along with sugar beet and fodder beet, it is one of the most important root crops in Germany. The potato is a perennial dicotyledonous plant. Your perennial can reach a height of up to one meter. The herbaceous plant has green leaves and white or purple flowers. The inedible, cherry-sized fruits are berries with numerous seeds that are only used in breeding (generative propagation). In agriculture, propagation takes place vegetatively, i.e. asexually, via the tubers: If potato tubers are exposed to light for a period of time, light germs emerge from their eyes. If a pre-sprouted potato is planted, side shoots, the so-called stolons, grow underground. The potato tuber is not a root, but a thickening of the stolon. The young tuber is the plant's storage organ. Roots at the base of the shoot axis and at the nodes of the runners ensure water and nutrient absorption. As a rule, twelve to 15 potato tubers can be harvested per planted potato tuber. Potato plants are very adaptable and do not make any special demands on climate, soil or crop rotation. For high quality, warm spring weather, sufficient, even water supply during the tuber formation phase and warm days with cool nights in maturity are particularly desirable. The potato thrives in almost all soils, only particularly stony or heavy soils cause it difficulties. Nevertheless, the nature of the soil has an effect on the potato tuber: the looser and more permeable the soil, the higher the quality of the product. Because the potato plant does not tolerate waterlogging, it is grown in dams. Origin of the potatoThe home of the potato is in South America, in today's Bolivia and Peru. The natives of South America planted the potato 2,000 years ago. The potato found its way to Europe with the Spanish conquerors. They discovered the vast potato fields of the Indians in the 16th century and took the tuber with them to Europe. In Spain it was first used only as an ornamental plant that could be viewed in botanical gardens. From here the ornamental plant began its journey to Italy, where it was named "tartufo" because of its similarity to the popular truffle. The origin of the German word "potato" can be traced back to this word. In 1589 a botanist brought the plant to Germany. And here, too, at first people only enjoyed their beautiful flowers. Around 1700 people realized the real value of the potato. Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, issued ordinances on the cultivation of potatoes. In his barren land he needed a food that could be grown without problems and at the same time had a high satiety value. However, the king's efforts were initially unsuccessful because some people ate the green berries out of ignorance and suffered severe poisoning. But the king made use of a clever trick: he had soldiers guard the potato fields. So the farmers became curious and stole the potato tubers from the fields because they too wanted to grow this "treasure". Thanks to the potato, many people were able to survive during a great famine in 1740. Since then, the potato has been deeply anchored in the menu of the Germans Potato tuber If you cut a potato crosswise, you can see the different layers of the potato tuber. The cork layer forms the skin of the potato. It protects the potato from drying out, from pests such as insects and worms, and from damage and bumps during harvest the "eyes" of the potato, from which the shoots grow during germination. At the top of the potato sits the crown, at the bottom end of the navel, where the tuber is connected to the potato plant. Under the cork layer is the bark layer, which contains the protein and most of the minerals. Most of the starch and vitamins are stored in the innermost part of the tuber, in the pulp layer. Ingredients of the potato The potato is our second most important staple food after grain. The nutritional importance of the potato is based on its starch content, the high-quality protein and the considerable amount of vitamins and minerals. In addition, the potato is a low-energy food. A medium-sized potato (100 g) has only 70 kcal. It consists of 78 percent water. Carbohydrates: Potatoes contain around 16 percent starch, which provides the body with important energy. Raw potato starch is hardly usable for humans, it is only unlocked during the cooking process. Then it is easy to digest and provides energy in the form of sugar. Protein: The protein content of potatoes is relatively low at two percent. Nevertheless, the protein of the potato is one of the most important vegetable proteins for the human organism, as it has a high content of essential amino acids. Fats: There are only traces of fat in potatoes. Vitamins: Potatoes have a high vitamin C content. They also contain many other important vitamins that the body needs on a daily basis. Minerals: In addition to calcium, phosphorus and iron, potatoes mainly contain a high proportion of potassium and magnesium. A total of eleven different vitamins and 15 different minerals make the potato an important supplier of vitamins for everyday life. Many of these vitamins and minerals are in or just under the shell. The peel therefore preserves the nutrient content and increases the fiber content of the potato. If it is well cleaned, it can be eaten. Eyes and green areas on the potato should be cut away generously as they may contain solanine. Solanine is an alkaloid that occurs in many nightshade plants and is considered harmful to health from a dose of 25 mg. However, the normal solanine content in potatoes is between 2 and 9 mg per 100 g and is absolutely harmless. Back to overview.
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