Is the pilot shortage in Indonesia real?

Content. 4 Editorial / Imprint. 29 AEROPERS membership


1 Issue 3/2017 Less is more: engine exhaust fumes Contaminated cabin air Pilot training Night flight ban at Zurich Airport Oh dear! NOTAM modern hieroglyphics of aviation

2 Contents The President's Voice If pilots are still allowed to fly “legally” with paying passengers on board, but no longer able to drive a car in the same condition, then something may be wrong. "The equation legal equals legitimate has never been correct, especially not in aviation," says President Lukas Meyer. 4 Editorial / Imprint 5 Trust is good, “controlling” is better Six specialists work in controlling at AEROPERS. They follow the activities of SWISS, sometimes with specially developed software, and check whether the various areas of the GAV are being adhered to. 11 The night flight ban at Zurich Airport Zurich Airport is open from 6 a.m. to a.m. Flughafen Zürich AG can issue special permits for flights that are delayed after a.m. The practice, which is based on a catalog of criteria and has meanwhile been established and accepted by the authorities, is explained. 14 NOTAM modern aviation hieroglyphs Notice to Airmen (NOTAM for short) is information that is necessary for the safe conduct of a flight. These are made available to the pilots from various locations. However, they are often difficult to understand. 16 Less is more: engine exhaust kerosene comes in at the top. But what comes out at the back? A look at the exhaust gases from our engines and what is being done to reduce emissions. 18 Multi-Crew Pilot License a nice idea In order to counter the shortage of pilots, especially in Asia, and also to create more practical training, the ICAO introduced the Multi-Crew Pilot License in 2006. In theory this is a very useful innovation, but many airlines are still turning away from this training. 20 Aerotoxic Syndrome: A New Occupational Disease? Over 3.5 billion passengers and 0.5 million aircrew were exposed to low levels of engine oils in There is an obvious need for a clearly defined internationally recognized medical protocol, occupational syndrome and disease recognition, and health and environmental data collection. 25 AEROPERS position paper AEROPERS takes a position on the subject of “Contaminated cabin air”. 26 Oh dear! A quick and aggressive reaction to a sudden threat could mean the difference between life and death in prehistoric times. In a cockpit, however, it is advisable to react more prudently. There are ways and means of not being completely defenseless against the strong physical impulses. 29 AEROPERS membership 30 Then it's going to be an expedition! Impressed by the country and people of Nepal, another trip is planned. Friends of the children's aid organization “Home of New Hopes” are actively helping. 32 SwissALPA Cross-check The SwissALPA associations report on their current situation at regular intervals. A cross-check of the situation within Switzerland. 33 Cartoon 34 Rearview mirror This section presents a selection of comments on air traffic and airports. 35 Pilots & Controllers “GET TOGETHER” 36 Time travel A review of important, amusing or even banal facts from 100 years of aviation history. 38 On The Air Flying news. 42 Entry & Retirement 45 Read Viktor Sturzenegger and Henry Lüscher give book tips. 48 We mourn, Appointments & Announcements 49 AEROPERS "Rundschau" advertising tariffs 50 Shooter's Corner Landscapes are among the most frequently photographed subjects. Still, you rarely see good photos of it. With the tips in this first of two parts, you can make better recordings! 2 AEROPERS

3 The President's Voice Compatibility of piloting and social life The piloting profession has changed in the last few decades, no question about it. In the 50s or 60s, long-haul routes were sometimes spent for weeks and at the home base for a very long time, but today this is usually limited to a few days or one or two nights abroad. Even today's short-haul pilots only know the Friday contingents of the past from hearsay. Leisure time has become a very scarce commodity, and accordingly the importance of the ability to plan leisure time and the consistency of planning has increased accordingly. Flying was expensive at the time and the offer was accordingly limited. Today flying has become (too) cheap and therefore generally affordable. Demand has literally exploded, but ticket prices have imploded as a result of liberalization. According to the management mantra, today's success factor lies in productivity. An airplane that is on the ground does not bring in any money. That's why everything is optimized. The legal framework, wherever there is one, is exhausted. Now you could take all of this as an opportunity to pity yourself a little and to mourn the golden days of aviation. But that doesn't help. Anyone who opens the focus realizes that there is hardly any industry that has been spared from such or similar developments. The environment is there and it is important to define sensible handling of work and leisure time. Both should actually act like two cogwheels and thus make a meaningful system work. Today's pilot profession is strict, very strict. The law allows daily flight duty times of up to 13 hours in the two-man cockpit. These can then be extended for a further two hours. The law also provides for a minimum of only seven days off at any time during the month. Almost any combination can be created from this. Work eight days and then one day off? No problem. Legal? Yes. Useful? Never! On the one hand, we have the problem today that the legal “minimum standards” represent a security problem. The maximum flight duty times are, as has been scientifically proven, far too long. Certain (legal!) Missions mean that pilots perform their duties in the cockpit today so overtired that they are no longer even allowed to drive a car according to the Road Traffic Act. On the other hand, we have a completely different problem: the law doesn't care a whit about social compatibility. Example: According to the law, a deployment plan can be allocated up to a minimum of 14 days in advance (which does not mean that individual flights can be changed at will afterwards). Specifically, this means that a crew member actually has no idea whether he is working or not, whether he is at home in the evening or abroad, whether he is working early in the morning or until late in the evening, beyond two weeks. Nobody is “legally” interested in the fact that a pilot could have a relationship, a family and maybe even a circle of friends and that this also requires planning or organization. Strange, as we all know, flying is a highly regulated profession. However, the focus of the provisions is on flight safety and the profitability of flight operations. The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is responsible for the legal minimum requirements. EASA is part of the European Union (EU), which in turn is primarily a pure economic interest group (it also emerged from the European economic community). There is hardly any mention of the safety and profitability of minimum social standards. The EU is obviously having a hard time with this. The European workers' associations are literally biting their teeth to ensure that appropriate minimum provisions are anchored in the laws of the EU. As of today, the EU is not able or probably unwilling to exert an effective influence here. This is shown by the fact that the European authorities allow employees to receive no wages at all for the exercise of their profession, and even to have to pay for it themselves (keyword: pay to fly), pilots are forced to become self-employed ( Keyword: Ryanair) or Norwegian flight crews are provided with Thai employment contracts and corresponding social «standards» (keyword: Norwegian), to name just a few facts. Conclusion: The EASA provisions do not cover social compatibility; to be honest, they did not arise in this context either. The problem arises when flight operations companies limit themselves to such “statutory minimum standards” and still believe that they have done what was necessary. A halfway reasonable compatibility with social life falls by the wayside. One might think that we in Switzerland are protected by the Labor Act (ArG) with the associated ordinances. Unfortunately, this was wrongly thought, as these provisions explicitly exclude crews from Swiss flight operations companies. Why actually? Night work, Sunday work, overtime, public holidays, etc. should be irrelevant for people just because they fly an airplane? Various things are not right here at the regulatory level (anymore). The "progress" in aviation has revealed a disparity that needs to be corrected. Little can be expected from the European legislature, unfortunately even less from the Swiss legislature. It is therefore up to the social partners to define minimum standards with regard to the compatibility of work and social life, which also deserve their name. The equation “legal equals legitim” has never been correct, especially not in aviation. Lukas Meyer President Rundschau

4 Editorial Now the Avro is history. With a lot of media coverage, the SWISS Regional Jet was released into well-deserved retirement. With all the emotions that such a farewell triggers, it should not be forgotten that the «Jumbolino» has also caused quite a stir in recent years. The maintenance control center and the operations control center are probably not too sad that they no longer have to deal with the technical defects of this troublemaker. The engines and the auxiliary unit in particular were known for not being completely sealed in a technical sense. There were leaks again and again, which led to the contamination of the cabin air and entered the statistics as so-called “smoke and fumes events”. The WHO recently published a study which, on the one hand, (Study A) specifically dealt with the incidents on the Avro fleet. For this purpose, 15 incidents were examined in a second study in which polluted cabin air can also be considered as a trigger. The Avro pilots complained of acute breathing problems, headaches and exhaustion. Long after the incident, they continued to suffer from breathing difficulties, along with cardiovascular problems and chronic fatigue. In the course of their work, the researchers had to find out again and again how poorly the incidents were documented, be it in the logbooks or as reports from the crews. In addition, the treating physicians were not fully aware of the context in which the sometimes diffuse and non-specific symptoms are to be put. Although the “aerotoxic syndrome” has been discussed in the specialist literature since 2000, awareness of the epidemiological extent has not yet been raised enough. The researchers therefore rightly ask whether the aerotoxic syndrome should not be described as “A New Occupational Disease”. Incidents must first be officially reported so that such complicated issues can be uncovered, scientific studies can be carried out in a well-founded manner and technical adjustments can be made in a targeted manner. In order to be able to work on a solution from all sides, the reports should also be forwarded to the staff association. This is the only way to give the AEROPERS controlling colleagues a legitimate basis for discussion. In the interview “Trust is good, controlling is better”, it quickly becomes clear which topics are currently most preoccupied by controlling and what attitude they have in contact with SWISS. A “smoke and fume event” can really upset a crew, especially if smoke suddenly starts to spread in the cockpit. The shock can initially have a paralyzing effect or lead to reflex-like, rash actions. Marcel Bazlen describes clearly what happens in us when we succumb to a “limbic hijack” in the “startle effect”, when our innate escape-or-fight defense strategy no longer grants the brain any decision-making authority and we become self-driven. Colleagues who tend to “slowly get scared” have a clear advantage, because with them the brain has the chance to have a say. For the “Hyper Startlers” among us, it is comforting to find out that there are methods and that specialist knowledge helps so that we do not get into a mental impasse in the first place. We all, and especially the colleagues who have so far flown the “Jumbolino”, wish that our Airbus, Boeing and CSeries spare us from “Smoke and Fume Events” and that we can work undisturbed in unpolluted cabin air. Jürg Ledermann Imprint Publisher AEROPERS Ewiges Wegli Kloten Phone Fax Editor André Ruth, Editor-in-Chief, Captain A330 / 340 Jürg Ledermann, Editor, Captain A330 / 340 Janos Fazekas, Editor, F / O A330 / 340 Dominik Haug, Editor, F / O A320 Marcel Bazlen, Editor, F / O A330 / 340 Henning M. Hoffmann, Managing Director AEROPERS Gaby Plüss (“Go-ahead”), Zurich TWR air traffic control and APPR permanent staff member Zbigniew Bankowski (“On The Air”), Captain A330 / 340 Oliver Reist (“Time travel”), F / O A330 / 340 Dominique Wirz (“Shooter's Corner”), Captain A320 Viktor Sturzenegger (“Read”), pens. Captain A330 / 340 Henry Lüscher (“Read”), pens. Captain A330 Layout André Ruth Druck Akeret Druck AG, 8600 Dübendorf Circulation 3000 copies Frequency of publication four times a year. Cover four-colored, inside black / red (Pantone 187) Ad acceptance AEROPERS- «Rundschau» Ewiges Wegli Kloten Telephone Mobile Copyright All texts and photos are protected by copyright. Reprinting, even in part, is only permitted with the express permission of the editorial team. Editorial deadline for «Rundschau» 4/2017: November 15th AEROPERS

5 Trust is good, "controlling" is better Six specialists work in AEROPERS 'controlling. They follow the activities of SWISS, sometimes with specially developed software, and check whether the various areas of the GAV are being adhered to. Text: Jürg Ledermann Many members have already come into contact with AEROPERS Controlling because they had questions about their work, the FTL or their holidays. After the merger of the three associations, we would like to bring this department of the association a little closer to you and refresh the knowledge of this service for the previous ones. Various so-called «specialists» are active in AEROPERS as the closest employees of the Board of Management alongside the management. You will work on a wide variety of subject areas in detail, thereby supporting the Board of Management in implementing the CLA and relieving it of day-to-day business. Your tasks are set out in detail in the AEROPERS business regulations. The entirety of the employees who monitor compliance with and implementation of the CLA is referred to as “controlling”. These are members who swap their seat in the cockpit for part of the month, usually during the board week, with an office chair at Ewigen Wegli 10 in order to work in the service of the members for the association. The controlling can be found in the basement of the AEROPERS secretariat. For the interview I met board member Andreas Umiker and the specialist Sebastian Gal. If you look at the AEROPERS organization chart, you won't find a controlling position. In the 2016 annual report, controlling is only mentioned briefly in one place in the Operations department. Where and for whom does controlling work? From a personnel point of view and from a mandate, we belong to the Operations department. However, there are also parts that work across departments. Controllers are also involved in the finance and association management departments. When I hear controlling, I first think of financial figures. Is that your main occupation? The term controlling actually comes from the financial world and means nothing else than accounting. We actually manage some numbers: a seniority number, for example, is nothing more than a number in a sorted Excel spreadsheet, and the Friday comparison account (FVK) is also made up of numbers from the deployment planning. However, we are mainly concerned with the control and compliance with the "As long as it is only about the matter, we can work very well with all SWISS departments." Collective employment agreement (GAV). This is generally the main task of the Operations department. The controlling checks whether the articles of the GAV and the FTL are correctly adhered to. We not only pay attention to compliance with the rules, but also enforce them if necessary. If necessary, we also grant exceptions. With the expertise that we have developed over the years, we also support the Executive Board in working out possible future regulations in the area of ​​FTL or for the next CLA. That then has less to do with control and controlling in the real sense. A specialist deals with the total effort. What calculations does he make? The total effort mainly plays a role in the development of new models for a CLA. SWISS provides us with figures for each pilot with which evaluations can be made.For example, it can be used to calculate how productive a pilot was, how many hours he worked and consequently how much he cost. Taking into account the new wage scale in the fallback contract, it can now be calculated, for example, that the fallback model not only brings three percent, but greater savings in the long term. Monthly committee (MG) The monthly committee is the decision-making body in connection with interpretations of the CLA. People involved at MG: l Head of Flight Operations SWR (S / OF Oliver Buchhofer) l Deputy Head of Flight Operations SWU (S / LF Daniel Landert) l Human Resources (DHC Gieri Hinnen) l Head of Operations Planning (S / ZP Daniel Silvestri) l Two flight operations department heads at AEROPERS (board members) l AEROPERS controller (specialist) as record keeper The MG is responsible for: l Questions on demand and stock management l Questions in connection with retraining planning l Handling of requests from FCM l Productivity assurance l Seasonal rotation agreements for long-haul routes l Seasonal definition of the reserve concepts l Open issues that could not be conclusively resolved at the EPM l Exchange of information between the parties Rundschau

6 Interbids Committee At least one Flight Ops specialist represents AEROPERS on the Interbids Committee. The committee meets at regular intervals (currently every three months). Persons involved in the Interbids Committee: l Head of Cockpit Crew Planning (S / ZPP Elisabeth Walter) l Head of Cabin Crew Planning (S / ZPK Heinz Herzog) l Representatives of the fleets (Deputy Fleet Chief or Fleet Office Manager) l Representative of the cabin management l Controller of AEROPERS (specialist) l Representative of Kapers The Interbids Committee deals with: l Interbids quality control l Adjustment of target values ​​and indicators l Analysis of deviations in indicators l Interbids bid options (scope, comprehensibility, appropriateness) l Revision of the regulations for Request System l General problems in connection with Interbids When evaluating such figures, each party has its own point of view. Do you meet, or are the interpretations very different? Different interpretations in the evaluation often arise in two areas: On the one hand, either a corps with a standard career or the actually existing corps can be evaluated. On the other hand, different time periods can be considered. In which areas are the other controlling specialists active? We have someone who deals with vacation issues. Another is more familiar with the Interbids system. We have colleagues who specialize in FTL or finance or are represented in the FSAG (Fatigue Safety Action Group). Regular meetings are held with SWISS on all of these topics. There are various committees over which we are in contact with SWISS (see boxes). What is the mood like at the meetings with SWISS? That depends a lot on which topics are currently being dealt with and who is our interlocutor. As long as it's really just about the matter at hand, we can work very well with all departments. But there are also situations in which participants in the discussion group feel personally affected. Then, of course, it becomes a little more difficult to arrive at a common, specific goal. There was a meeting as part of the restructuring of the social partnership processes. What are the results of this meeting? We met in a seminar hotel in the Zurich Unterland. It was decided to create a platform on which information on all projects can be stored and to which all contact persons have access. So in the future everyone should have the latest information and data at hand at all times. There is also a declaration of intent that expresses the will of all those involved to burden discussions with as few emotions as possible. Are there further efforts to arrive at a result more quickly and objectively? The way you log something can have an impact on the mood on the negotiating team. For example, if you write everything down in great detail and specify exactly who said what when, this can trigger inhibitions. A participant in the conversation may then feel too exposed. If, after half an hour of discussion, you make a summary of how the committee made its decision, the mood in the team is less of a burden. Isn't there then a risk that the log will be less handy as a result? Yes, it is. This means that it is no longer possible to deduce how a decision was made and who brought which arguments. The EPM and the MG are there to discuss differences that arise in daily production and in the interpretation of various rules. Which side are the applications coming from? At EPM level, they are more likely to come from us. In the monthly committee, the ratio is probably around 60 percent AEROPERS and 40 percent SWISS. Certain topics are always on the agenda at these meetings (see box). SWISS sends us the planned pairings two months in advance. We feed this list into our system and check it for tricky combinations. Such delicate combinations are regularly objected to at the EPM. Are hotels and travel times actually discussed every month? The hotels are constantly being evaluated. When it comes to the number of hotels on our route network and the duration of the contracts, we are already discussing one or two cases per month. The interpretation of the EASA FTL and the limits in our contract are likely to be constantly discussed. Yes, that can degenerate into a veritable «paragraph cavalry». Most of the time, these topics are only briefly discussed in the EPM. If no common denominator is found at this level, the topic is passed on to the next higher instance, the monthly committee (MG). From time to time, joint working groups have to be formed to which we outsource in-depth FTL topics. How are discrepancies or different views in the design of the FTL uncovered? 6 AEROPERS

7 Three board members (at the front of the table) and four specialists form the heart of the controlling team. We determine part of it through our inspection activities. We discover other things through the reports that our members write. Or colleagues report their assignments and show us what changes Crew Control has made. Which people from the fleets are present at the EPM? On the part of the SWR there is usually a deputy fleet manager. Often only the Fleet Office Manager comes from the SWU. With the restructuring of FS2020 there will probably be changes to the participants. We expect that the portfolio managers and less the team leaders will be present in the future. The fleet managers are a good link between planning and crew control on the one hand and us on the other. They have closer contact with the planning offices and are also related to the issues that stress the members on the route. So can the monthly committee be called a “legislative body”? This is where decisions are actually made that specify contractual regulations and are recorded in great detail in the appendix to the protocol. We spoke now of SWR and SWU. What does it look like at Edelweiss? At Edelweiss there is one meeting a month at which everything is discussed directly. The collaboration was actually very promising right from the start. Will you ever get to the point where you can say that everything is now clear and that everyone agrees when interpreting the contract? The basis for our FTL comes from EASA and was freshly issued at the time. EASA has made it easy for itself and has left a great deal of discretion with many definitions. We developed the new FTL in 2014 and introduced it in two stages at the beginning of 2015 and the beginning of 2016. And now, in mid-2017, we are still discussing various points on the interpretation of which the parties do not agree on how this should be understood in practice. We would like the Federal Office for Civil Aviation (FOCA) to provide better support in this regard. Unfortunately, it often takes a lot of time to answer pressing questions in Bern, the clocks seem to tick a little differently. The interpretation of these regulations will therefore occupy us for years to come. Operations and planning meeting (EPM) At least two Flight Ops specialists represent AEROPERS at the monthly EPM. The EPM is a subdivision of the monthly committee and reports to it. People involved at EPM l Head of Cockpit Crew Planning (S / ZPP Elisabeth Walter) l Head of Crew Control (S / ZPC Christoph Messerli) l Fleet representatives (Deputy Fleet Chief or Fleet Office Manager) l AEROPERS controller (specialists) Im EPM is dealt with: l Agreement on short and long-haul rotations in the monthly area l Operations planning issues l Crew control issues (change of operations etc.) and short-term adjustments to the reserve concept l Compliance with the FTL l IT issues relating to crew management systems (JCR, AirCrews, CSI-AirCrews, etc.) l Hotel, catering and other operational issues l Agreement on transport times l Orders from the MG Rundschau

8 There should be a systematic definition of how such questions are dealt with! We as an association or SWISS as the operator will contact the responsible aviation office. The authority should then decide how to interpret the EASA text. In order to be able to make a binding decision, however, she will probably contact EASA beforehand. If I hear that, I would spontaneously suspect that nothing is coming from Brussels. It goes slowly and in small steps forward. It's not just inquiries from Switzerland. All European pilot associations and airlines are confronted with this problem. The ECA (European Cockpit Association) is at the forefront of creating clarity. It is not even a question of interpreting something in favor of one's own or another party. We just want a clear “regulation” that can be used on a daily basis. At EASA, the understanding seems to be growing slowly that it is not enough to introduce a law and then turn away and hope that the air offices of the states concerned can carry out the interpretation. Implementation also requires a certain amount of support and coordination from EASA. Because there are big differences: The British Air Agency, for example, is very active and has very specific views on various topics. Other air offices are more passive and seem to us to be partially overwhelmed. Are these FTLs now effective everywhere at European level? The time when the EASA FTL should have been introduced at the latest was February 18th. As far as we have heard, implementation in Spain is now slowly starting. Are there any specific, urgent questions that the FOCA would have to answer? We come into conflict less often in day-to-day operations when interpreting the EASA FTL, which defines the legal framework, because our contract is more restrictive in many respects. However, there are definitely questions about these topics that should finally be clarified. One example is the restriction that a pilot should not be awake for longer than 18 hours in a combination of reserve and subsequent flight duty. If the Aviation Office were to interpret these regulations strictly, this would be a major challenge for SWISS when it comes to structuring the reserve for long-haul pilots. Another point is the interpretation of the rules for Daily Irregularity. There is so much leeway that it is hardly possible for the normal crew member to understand what is still allowed and what is not. It is clear that SWISS would like to make the most of this leeway. "It is hard to bear that we are often portrayed on official channels as causing the problem." Holiday meeting (FM) At least one Flight Ops specialist represents AEROPERS at the FM. The FM is a subdivision of the EPM and only takes place when required. People involved at the FM: l Advanced Expert Cockpit Crew Planning (Cédric Benz) l AEROPERS controller (specialists) The FM deals with: l Questions relating to vacation management l Creating the vacation fact sheet The conversation is interrupted by a phone call with Sebastian Gal has to clarify some issues with a fleet manager who is responsible for training. Was it about the training in Frankfurt? Yes exactly. It was about FTL-compliant planning of Fridays in connection with training blocks abroad. In general, only three basic rules of the FTL apply to such training. This involves observing the Fridays in a three-month period, the maximum daily duration of a training unit and the minimum rest time between the training blocks. We have the following ideas about this: We assume that those responsible for training (CFI) have a great interest in the trainees passing the courses. We therefore expect the courses to be planned “sensibly” and that the trainees can learn under optimal conditions. After the schedule for the colleagues concerned had already been published and the training in Frankfurt had started, we saw that the course had not been planned in accordance with FTL. We then contacted the relevant fleet, discussed the matter and suggested solutions. Unfortunately, we have now found that the colleagues concerned were neither informed nor asked and the training continued without changes. We requested that the following courses be properly planned. Unfortunately, there has not been any change here either. In situations like this, we often feel like we're fighting windmills. At most, we can bring such incidents up to the monthly committee with all clarity. Would that bring us back to the topic of social partnership? We are very open to problem solving. We therefore expect that SWISS will respond to problems with the 8 AEROPERS

9 Compliance with contracts and agreements actively approaches us in order to find a solution together. Unfortunately, that doesn't always happen, which can be very frustrating. What is also difficult to bear is the fact that we are then often portrayed on official channels as the cause of the problem. You mentioned that your controller monitors compliance with the CLA. But if you can only draw attention to grievances and cannot initiate any further measures, you have a weak basis. Yes, there is no “catalog of penalties” that could be used in the event of a violation. We consider each case separately. After a plan has been published, every correction of course immediately brings changes for the affected crew member with it. In such cases, the colleague concerned must decide whether he or she insists on a contract-compliant schedule or whether the stability of social life plays a more important role. In any case, we demand that SWISS avoid the corresponding error in the future. In general, we build on a social partnership. The associated basics were also laid down in an agreement and include an escalation route. If this is done by the end, our President and the COO / CEO have to meet for a discussion. Should this also fail, only the official legal process remains. You have already mentioned that you will mainly be made aware of planning errors by colleagues. So you don't systematically check your missions? It is beyond our capabilities to program a tool that checks the planned operations for all rules. We expect that the SWISS software should be able to detect errors. An example of this: after the introduction of the new FTL, we wanted to see what the situation looks like on Fridays within the three-month period. It was of interest to see whether the system also "In some situations we often feel like we are fighting windmills." going to the limit here or whether it still allows a certain amount of leeway. We noticed that the granting of the required Fridays was not always adhered to. We investigated and wrote a screening program for this particular case. We have found that this rule is properly followed when planning operations. If Crew Control makes a change to the assignment that affects this rule, a corresponding message must be sent to the planning department. This is a manual process in which errors can naturally occur in times of operational stress. A newly programmed addition in the planning system (JCR, Jepessen Crew Rostering) now ensures the closed loop. Since then, the rule has been followed more consistently. What are the current problems at the moment? As mentioned, the interpretation and correct implementation of the EASA FTL is a topic that concerns us a lot. Then we will work intensively on the so-called “winter package”. This concerns the settlement of open questions regarding the new FTL. This is actually part of the CLA15. Both contractual partners were of the opinion that it makes sense to look back one year after the introduction of the new FTL and, where necessary, to make adjustments. We met in the early summer of 2016 for initial discussions and were able to agree on solutions a few months later. These discussions ultimately led to the aforementioned winter package because the intention was to introduce these measures in winter 2016/2017.Unfortunately, as part of the newly started collective bargaining negotiations, the conclusion was delayed. After rather tough discussions, the document has now been finalized and signed. It should be implemented shortly. What about the Friday comparison account (FVK)? The situation relaxed there. SWISS itself noticed that it does not make sense to plan eight fewer days off with a pilot within two months. Controlling staff members of the board in the flight operations department l Andreas Umiker ... Captain A330 / 340 (SWR) l Andreas Klöti ... Captain A320 (SWR) l Christian Sneum ... Captain BCS (SWU) specialists in controlling l Sandro Frehner. .. First Officer B777 l Sebastian Gal ... Captain A320 l Michael Meier ... First Officer BCS l Patrick Schabrun ... First Officer B777 l Patrick Jäggi ... First Officer A330 / 340 l Heinrich Sulzer ... Captain A320 Are you also involved in CLA negotiations? At the front is the negotiating team that submits the position and intent of AEROPERS to the opposing party. In the background there is a so-called back office in which the specialists and board members work. SWISS's suggestions are evaluated there and your own suggestions and options are worked out. There are two main areas: Operations and Finance. During the negotiation rounds, various specialists are here in the AEROPERS house in order to be able to support the negotiation team as quickly as possible. How exactly can you calculate different variants? Let us assume that it is up for discussion that Rundschau

10 we officially check in a quarter of an hour earlier on long-haul routes. How exactly can you assess the effects? In the case of variants in the area of ​​FTL, we can only roughly estimate the effects. In order to be able to assess this precisely, various scenarios with test runs must be calculated in the JCR. If we then receive information from SWISS about how many FTEs (Full Time Equivalents) are additionally needed for a variant, we can easily recalculate the financial impact. We often get such FTE values ​​based on a monthly analysis. However, this is too brief. In the case of FTL, a longer-term view is often necessary. As a rule, one should look at at least a three-month period in order to obtain meaningful data. It is particularly important in collective bargaining negotiations that the correct figures are used. When assessing the financial impact in the area of ​​payrolls, we can predict very precisely how many percent can be saved and what costs a new salary model would cause. How far has the decision-making process for converting the Airbus 340 progressed? The current status of the project team is such that modifications are being made to the cockpit crewbunk in order to be able to better dampen the noise from the galley and from the toilet, which is planned opposite the crewbunk entrance. The prototype of the crewbunk is being built by Zodiac Aerospace near Frankfurt. The adjustments could recently be viewed for the first time and their effectiveness tested. In the course of late summer, the decision on the modifications actually to be implemented should be made. "The collaboration with Edelweiss was actually very promising right from the start." The Edelweiss colleagues have a different GAV and different FTL. How is controlling designed there? We are still in the process of shaping the cooperation with the Edelweiss management and putting it on a good working basis. At the moment only the board members are involved in these discussions. In June we agreed on the scope of the data flow between EDW and AEROPERS, and the data specialists from both parties are currently in the process of implementing the processes technically. Then we can start the actual controlling. know the contract well. Do you then need further specialists? Originally the SWR controlling team consisted of three OPS controllers and two specialists who mainly dealt with the overall effort and seniority. Even before the associations merged, an OPS controller from the SWU joined us. In the future we will need another OPS controller from Edelweiss. The tender for this has already been issued. We have already received reports from Edelweiss colleagues. It is difficult for our current specialists to be able to correctly assess the circumstances. In order to be able to give clever answers, as a “local” you have to know the people, the circumstances and who do I have on the phone when I call the AEROPERS duty officer (DO)? The DO team is led by Tom Weder. So you can have Tom on the phone or one of the four OPS controllers. The team is reinforced by the three board members from the Operations department and by seniority and IT specialist Patrick Jäggi. Each DO is on average three and a half days per month, Tom is there for around six and a half days. Tom tries to divide it up so that one person works for as long as possible (up to 48 hours) at a time. The DO operation takes place on Fridays. Planning with the members' vacation days would by far exceed the available capacities. You have enormous expertise. What options do members have to benefit from it? You can download various files and lists on the homepage in the members area under «Home / Downloads / Tools». First there are compilations of the earlier “Cases of the Month”, then the very popular “FTL2016 Quick Reference Booklet” and, last but not least, the “FTL2016 Guide”, which is provided with precise background information and additional explanations. In addition, we write in the monthly board bulletin which topics are currently relevant in controlling. A current example of the correct interpretation of the FTL is given in the “Below the line” section. When are you here in the AEROPERS house? All controlling specialists are here during the five days of the board week. From Monday to Wednesday, the cases of the previous month are processed and prepared for the upcoming meetings. The EPM and the monthly committee take place on Thursday and Friday. In addition to the monthly work, there may be spontaneous assignments, for example during contract negotiations. We do the rest from home in our free time. We can partially compensate for this time. Thank you very much for your tireless efforts and this interesting conversation. l 10 AEROPERS

11 The night flight ban at Zurich Airport Zurich Airport is open from 6 a.m. to a.m. Flughafen Zürich AG can issue special permits for flights that are delayed after a.m. Flughafen Zürich AG has developed a catalog of criteria for this in collaboration with the Canton of Zurich, the Federal Office of Civil Aviation and SWISS. The following article is intended to explain the practice based on this, which has now been established and accepted by the authorities. Text: Stefan Tschudin, the Chief Operating Officer, Flughafen Zürich AG According to Art. 39a of the Ordinance on Aviation Infrastructure (VIL), night flights are at least blocked from 0.30 a.m. to 5 a.m. and take-offs until 6 a.m. for national airports. The last half hour from midnight to 0.30 a.m. is reserved for delayed flights; these must be planned until midnight. Flughafen Zürich AG (FZAG) tightened this regulation by one hour in the evening with the application for today's operating regulations. Art. 1, Appendix 1 of the operating regulations governs the principle that Zurich Airport is open from 6 a.m. to 2 p.m. This principle is specified in Art. 12, Paragraph 1, Appendix 1 to the effect that take-offs and landings for commercial traffic may be planned until 11 p.m., whereby FZAG allocates the last slot for departures at “block-off” and for landings at Stefan Tschudin was born in 1968 and grew up in Wallisellen. After studying law at the University of Zurich, he initially worked as a legal assistant in a law firm, Stefan joined the Swiss Aviation School (SLS) and flew the A320 and A330 until 2002 as Swissair's first officer. During this time he worked as an instructor and as a specialist in legal issues at AEROPERS. After his aviation career, he worked as a legal advisor and Secretary General of PFS (Pension Fund Services). Stefan has been working for Flughafen Zürich AG in the Operations department since 2007. He mainly dealt with issues relating to the operating regulations, the infrastructure planning (SIL) and complex change requests. Since January 2017 he has been the head of the Noise and Procedures department in the Aviation division and is now the designated COO as the successor to Stefan Conrad. Stefan is married, has three daughters and continues to live in Wallisellen. In his free time he does a lot of sports and is involved in travel, music, photography, art, theater and politics. In addition to ice hockey, which he played as a semi-professional player in his youth, as a judge at the Association Sports Court of the Swiss Ice Hockey Federation, he has continued to bring a strong “block-on” connection forward. Art. 12, Paragraph 2, Appendix 1 then clearly states that delayed take-offs and landings are permitted until noon without a special permit. SIL object sheet and operating regulations This regulation can also be found in the stipulations of the SIL object sheet at Zurich Airport of September 18, 2015, which states that this is the result of a balance between traffic and economic interests on the one hand and the protection of the population On the other hand, there is noise. However, according to these explanations, a further extension of the night flight ban or a more extensive restriction of the number of flight movements during the night would not be compatible with the function of the airport as a hub for intercontinental traffic. As stipulated in the property sheet, this regulation is binding for Zurich Airport. The SIL object sheet also states that the airport operator can issue exemption permits after a.m., taking into account the principles of proportionality and ensuring that flights after a.m. remain exceptional and delays do not become the norm. For the detailed regulation, the property sheet refers to the operating regulations and makes the following conditions: “The exception regulation must comply with the applicable federal legislation (Art. 39d VIL) and ensure that the airport's functionality is guaranteed even in extraordinary operating situations. This can include, for example, serious meteorological conditions as well as technical or operational disruptions. When examining the requests for exemption, the efforts of the airlines to avoid delays and the consequences of a refusal of exemption for passengers and the airline must be taken into account and contrasted with the increased need for rest of the population at night. " In the operating regulations, this is now regulated in Article 12 of Annex 1 in Paragraph 3 mentioned in the introduction to the effect that FZAG can issue exceptional permits for take-offs and landings after a.m. in the event of unforeseeable, extraordinary events, in particular in the event of severe meteorological conditions. Catalog of criteria as an aid to interpretation In order to make this relatively open concept of “unforeseeable, extraordinary events” practicable, FZAG has developed a catalog of criteria in cooperation with the Canton of Zurich, the Federal Office of Civil Aviation and SWISS. This is Rundschau

It is very important to note that the decision as to whether or not an exemption is granted is always at the discretion of FZAG. This means that even if, according to the interpretation guide, there is an unforeseeable, extraordinary event, it must be weighed in each individual case whether the number of passengers affected, the size of the delay and the imminent additional effort and damage justify the need for rest of the affected To disturb the population. For example, for a short-haul flight with few passengers, an extension of 15 minutes can usually be granted, for a full long-haul flight a half hour or even a little more, always in an assessment of the individual case. According to the interpretative guide, what is meant by “unforeseeable, extraordinary events”? A distinction is made between natural, political, technical and operational causes. The natural causes mainly concern serious meteorological conditions such as heavy snowfall or thunderstorms in summer with handling stops or business interruptions, in rarer cases natural events such as floods or earthquakes. Political causes include terrorist attacks, airspace closures and, in many cases, strikes, particularly in air traffic control. However, this can only serve as a reason for granted exemption permits for individual days, because in longer-lasting situations such as strikes lasting several days, the companies concerned, namely the airlines, have to react accordingly to these extraordinary situations. In the case of technical malfunctions, it is mainly about short-term problems with aircraft, the nightly landing on runway 28 in Zurich. in accordance with the Minimum Equipment List (MEL) must be resolved before departure, less often also about technical problems with air traffic control or airport systems. Operational causes can be accidents or incidents that significantly hinder normal flight operations, but also slot problems in the event of traffic congestion. In principle, these causes can be used for exemptions if these conditions either affect Zurich Airport or aircraft that are affected on the last rotation of the day at the place of departure before the return flight to Zurich. As stated above, there is in no case a right to have an exemption granted, rather the interests are always weighed up on a case-by-case basis. Leadership badge decides The process for granting a special permit has worked well over the past few years. In the event of foreseeable delays affecting the night-time blocking period, the operators send a request to the FZAG Airport Authority as soon as the situation is clear. The airport manager consults with the manager to make an assessment. These are around 15 FZAG executives who alternately represent the airport manager for one week. After a precise assessment of the circumstances and after weighing the consequences of a possible refusal, you can issue an exemption for a delayed take-off or landing. It is also determined until when the exemption is valid, for example until no later than midnight or until midnight. The Airport Authority's Airport Manager then informs the operator and air traffic control of the decision made. In order to be able to guarantee uniform practice, the circle of members of the management team is deliberately kept small, and these members meet annually for a refresher to exchange experiences and to be able to adjust and refine the practice. Capricious weather or technical problems If one analyzes the causes of exemptions granted over the last few years, the natural causes or extraordinary weather situations clearly predominate, with an accumulation in the summer months due to thunderstorms and in winter due to snowfall. The previous record month was the snowy December 2012 with almost 50 special permits issued. In winter, the practice also applies that all flights are still allowed to take off if they are ready in time to be pushed back, i.e. even if the last flight could not have started before o'clock due to the deicing sequence. But there are also months with just one or 12 AEROPERS

13 two exceptional permits issued (excluding state and rescue flights, e.g. REGA). In addition, technical problems with aircraft are often the reason for issuing a special permit. In addition to these most often clear cases, there are of course a wide variety of individual cases that are decided individually and as described on the basis of a weighing of interests. It happens again and again that a piece of luggage has to be searched for and unloaded due to a missing passenger, for which a few minutes extension to the night-time blocking period is usually granted. However, this cannot be added as a reason if the airline has deliberately overbooked the flight and then has to unload passengers and luggage again. In principle, crews' idle time problems are also not accepted as the cause, since this is a matter for the operator, as is ensuring that the ground handler has enough qualified personnel available. After all, there are always individual cases that have to be decided under great time pressure and not with full knowledge of the situation, in which one would decide differently in retrospect and which are discussed in the annual refresher in order to clarify the practice. It is therefore very important that the operators report their inquiries as early as possible, as soon as the situation is clear, so that there is still enough time for the decision. A SWISS A340 docked at Terminal 2 in Zurich.Finally, a few statistical figures: In the last six years, between 100 and 150 exemption permits for delayed flights after a.m. were used each year, whereby the number of permits granted was even higher because the permits did not have to be used repeatedly. especially for arrivals that landed in Zurich on time. The strict night flight regulations in Zurich also led to over 200 cancellations with more than affected passengers in the last six years, but without the issued exemption permits, passengers would be stranded in Zurich. l YOU ARE THE BEST PROOF THAT ADS ARE READ! Your ad could be here and you've just proven that people will read it! Further information is available at: or Rundschau

14 NOTAM modern hieroglyphs of aviation Notice to Airmen, NOTAM for short, are information that are necessary for the safe conduct of a flight. They are made available to the pilots of airports, countries and airlines. Unfortunately, they are often coded in such a way that they are difficult to decipher or the geographical location of the affected area is difficult to identify. Text: Dominik Haug Pilots and dispatchers receive information relevant to the upcoming flight in the form of short messages. Urgent and last-minute changes are published via NOTAM. There is information about the departure airport, the flight route, the destination and alternate airport. These are published in coded form and in shorthand. This should enable pilots to read and grasp the information relevant to them more quickly. In most cases, this also works. In some cases, however, it is not possible to recognize the important information immediately or to correctly assess its importance. Coding of NOTAM As already mentioned, NOTAM are written in a shorthand. This shorthand is usually easy and quick to understand for the experienced pilot. A NOTAM for Zurich Airport reads as follows, for example: D) SUN-THU, MON-FRI E) RWY 14/32 CLSD DUE TO WIP. ACTUAL CLOSURE BCST ON ATIS In specific terms, this means: Sunday to Thursday from am to pm and Monday to Friday from am to pm, runway 14/32 is closed due to construction work. The exact closing time will be announced on the automatic aerodrome information announcement. This NOTAM is still relatively easy to decipher and understand. In the case of geographical information in particular, it becomes difficult to recognize the exact position of the obstacles or airspace restrictions. The positions are shown to the pilot in degrees of the coordinate system. Since the planning documents do not contain a detailed map for every airfield, the exact localization of the change can sometimes be difficult or even impossible. In the above example (right) it is simply impossible to process all of the information and assign it geographically. One could assume that such a NOTAM simply satisfies the reporting requirement. The responsibility now no longer rests with the publisher of the report, but with the pilot, who has verifiably been informed of the changes. Whether and how he processes this is his responsibility. NOTAM from Sydney about obstacles with directions and distances. Malaysian Airlines Flight 17 shot down over Ukraine A good three years ago a Malaysian Airlines Boeing 777 was shot down in Ukrainian airspace. The airlines and thus also the pilots were informed in advance of the flight about partial closures of the Ukrainian airspace. Here, too, the crews and airlines were informed of the new restricted area via NOTAM. As usual, the boundaries of the affected area were communicated in coordinates. Here it becomes clear how difficult it is for the pilot to identify the exact location of the affected area. This is a problem both during planning and in flight. Depending on the planning documents, the pilots only receive one map of the entire flight route. On a long-haul flight it is then impossible to enter the coordinates precisely on this map. Depending on the software used in flight, it is also difficult for the pilots to compare their current position with the planned route and the corresponding messages. Often the current GPS position is not shown on the digital map, so that one can only understand the planned route and have to limit oneself to guessing when shortcuts are received. After the Boeing 777 was shot down, rumors surfaced that the aircraft was in restricted airspace. However, these rumors can clearly be contradicted. It is correct that the Boeing was geographically in the closed airspace. However, under point G in the NOTAM it can be seen that the closure only existed up to flight level 320 (feet). However, the Malaysian Airlines plane was shot down at flight level 330 (feet). That was 14 AEROPERS

15 þ A1492 / 14 - TEMPO RESTRICTED AREA INSTALLED WITHIN FIR DNIPROPETROVSK BOUNDED BY COORDINATES: N E N E N E N E N E N E THAN ALONG STATE BOUNDRY UNTILL POINT N E RESTRICTIONS NOT APPLIED FOR FLIGHTS OF STATE ACTF OF UKRAINE. FL260 - FL JUL UNTILL 14 AUG 23: ESTIMATED. CREATED 14 JUL 15: þ A1507 / 14 - TEMPO RESTRICTED AREA INSTALLED WITHIN FIR DNIPROPETROVSK BOUNDED BY COORDINATES: N E N E N E N E N E N E THAN ALONG STATE BOUNDRY UNTILL POINT N E RESTRICTIONS OF UKRAFT OF STATE ACT. FL260 - ULN UNL 17 JUL UNTILL 17 AUG 23: ESTIMATED. CREATED 17 JUL 14: Above the NOTAM known before the launch with a blockage of the airspace up to the foot. Below is the NOTAM issued immediately after the shooting, with lock also above the foot (UNL, unlimited). even if only by about 300 meters, above the closed airspace. Neither the pilots nor the dispatchers and air traffic controllers can be blamed. All those involved complied with the NOTAM's restrictions and the closed airspace was not violated. The Boeing was shot down between and o clock local time. At local time, a new NOTAM was issued within a very short time. Important information was missing The closure of the lower airspace over Ukraine on July 14 was due to the fact that various other aircraft had been shot down over Ukraine prior to the downing of the MH17. However, these were exclusively military machines that had also flown at a lower altitude. Nevertheless, for the choice of the route, even if the airspace was not blocked, it would have been relevant to know that just three days before the Boeing 777 was shot down, another machine had been shot down on foot. Blocking of airspace over Ukraine before the Boeing 777 was shot down in words and pictures. It is the responsibility of a state to issue appropriate NOTAMs about its airspace. If a state does not meet this responsibility or does so inadequately, airlines cannot adequately inform their crews. A state can have different interests. However, the interest of safety must always take precedence over other interests such as reputation, tourism or overflight charges. As long as the NOTAM is not created by a central office in Europe or even worldwide, there is nothing left but to trust the relevant states and their information. But even if another organization were to create and publish the NOTAM, the information would have to be collected and passed on by independent experts on site in order to achieve an improvement. However, this is difficult to implement in reality. The route taken by Malaysian Airlines Flight 17, for example, was not only safe according to the documents published by the Ukrainian state. The international institutions ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) and IATA (International Air Transport Association) were of the opinion that the overflight should be carried out safely at this altitude. An ICAO spokesman also confirmed that the flight route was open at this altitude and it was Ukraine's responsibility to decide. Accordingly, it is always the responsibility of the state to publish relevant reports. The ICAO will only disseminate NOTAM itself in a few cases. According to the ICAO spokesman, this happens when a state is unable to do it itself or can no longer control the airspace. The ICAO as an independent institution also steps in when a state does not have a good diplomatic relationship with another state that is supposed to receive the information. l Rundschau

16 Less is more: engine exhaust It is probably no secret that the engines that power our aircraft emit quite a few pollutants. But probably very few of us know what leaves the tail of an aircraft turbine. The variety of fabrics and the effects on our atmosphere are surprising and therefore definitely worth a look. Text: Janos Fazekas The old friend: CO 2 carbon dioxide makes up the largest part of an engine's emissions. When kerosene is burned, the carbon it contains combines with oxygen, and every kilogram of kerosene burned produces around 3.15 kilograms of CO 2. Aviation thus accounts for around two percent of global fossil fuel-based CO 2 emissions. As is well known, CO 2 is a greenhouse gas that is crucial for global warming. There are various agreements in place to limit the emission of such gases. The first to be mentioned is the Kyoto Protocol, in which 191 countries committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. This agreement ran from 2005 to 2020. It was decided to extend it, but this has not yet come into force. The successor agreement is the Paris Agreement, which is due to come into force in 2020 and from which the USA has already withdrawn. In view of the moderate success of politics, it is all the more surprising that the ICAO can report a success in this area. New aircraft types must comply with strict CO 2 limits from 2020 onwards.Machines that are already in production, only aircraft that are already in regular service and do not comply with the limit values ​​from 2028 onwards, may not continue to be produced until the design sufficiently complies with the regulations is adapted. The harmless one: water vapor and contrails In second place in the ranking of emissions, behind carbon dioxide, is water vapor. A turbine that burns 2,700 kilograms of kerosene per hour emits around 3.3 tons of water vapor. That this is harmless is self-explanatory. It also contributes to the formation of contrails (see box). These can actually have a small influence on the local temperature. According to a study by the University of Wisconsin, the contrails smooth out daily temperature fluctuations by keeping sunlight away from the earth during the day and keeping the earth's infrared radiation in the atmosphere at night. This astonishing finding is based on weather data that were collected after September 11, 2001 during the then prevailing no-fly conditions in the USA. The respirable: fine dust In jet engines, soot, the product of incomplete combustion of kerosene, is a good example. One cubic meter of exhaust gas released contains approximately 0.1 milligrams of soot. However, this small amount consists of around billions of tiny particles and can therefore nonetheless be harmful to humans, since the particles are respirable due to their size (10 µm, PM10). With technical progress, more efficient engines are coming onto the market, in which the kerosene is burned better. For these, it will be necessary from 2020 to prove the number and mass of particles. From 2023 onwards, defined limit values ​​will have to be complied with. In the field of particulate matter measurement in aircraft engines, Switzerland is also playing a pioneering role: in 2011, the FOCA, together with SR Technics, built a prototype of a particulate matter measurement system for aircraft engines in Kloten. This system is now considered a reference system. The others: nitrogen oxides (NO X), sulfates. These gases are also relevant to the climate. However, sulphates have a cooling effect, while nitrogen oxides, interestingly, have a cooling and warming effect. The sulphates are created by the sulfur contained in kerosene and reflect sunlight before it reaches the earth. Nitrogen oxides, on the other hand, form the greenhouse gas ozone in the troposphere, which heats up the climate. On the other hand, it breaks down the greenhouse gas methane and thus also cools. Continuous Improvements This was just a rough sketch of what our engines are blowing into the air. There are other substances, contrails. At cruising altitude of long-haul jets, the temperature is often below minus 40 degrees Celsius. That is cold enough that contrails form even in relatively dry air. The combustion products of kerosene are essentially carbon dioxide and water vapor as well as soot particles. When swirling with cold ambient air, the saturation vapor pressure decreases much more than the partial pressure of the water, with the result of supersaturation. The soot particles in the exhaust gas allow the rapid formation of nuclei by attaching water molecules to them. Ice crystals form directly at low temperatures. How long contrails exist depends on the relative humidity of the air. They can last from a few minutes to several hours. However, water not only condenses behind the engine, but sometimes also in front of it on the wing tips or above the wing. This happens because the air pressure suddenly decreases there, the air cools down and the water in the air condenses. (Source: Wikipedia) 16 AEROPERS

17 A modern CSeries engine. which are not mentioned in this article. It should be clearly stated that modern engines and aircraft are becoming more and more efficient and emitting fewer pollutants. The LEAP-1A engine, for example, uses 15 percent less fuel than its previous generation and emits 50 percent less NO X. Our newest member of the fleet, the Bombardier CSeries, which is equipped with brand new geared turbofan engines from P&W, consumes up to 18 percent less than comparable aircraft. This means that it only uses two liters of kerosene per 100 kilometers and passenger. The global average consumption in 2014 was 3.13 liters. In general, the trend is towards ever more economical and environmentally friendly engines. On the one hand, because the legislation provides for ever stricter standards, and on the other hand, because kerosene is a major cost item in the budget of every airline. The fuel efficiency of jet engines increased by 55 percent between 1960 and 2000. In addition to engines, other measures naturally also play a role. Technologies and planning aid Mention should be made here of, among other things, the design of the wing or the use of lighter composite materials. Accordingly, we can count on even more economical aircraft types in the future. With the steady spread of modern aircraft types such as the A320Neo, A350, B787, B777X and Bombardier CSeries, the trend will show a significant improvement in the near future. If you look at the numbers of the open "The fuel efficiency of jet engines increased by 55 percent between 1960 and 2000." Looking at orders for modern aircraft, it quickly becomes clear how big the positive effect could be: Airbus has over 6,800 and Boeing over 5,700 open orders. In addition to technical measures, the airlines are of course also making efforts to reduce fuel consumption. For example, the so-called EF95 value is available to the SWISS pilots to help them plan their flights. Simply put, this figure shows the additional consumption on a route under the worst possible conditions. With this information it is now possible for the crews to estimate whether, under the given circumstances, it is advisable to take additional fuel with you beyond the planning minimum. This is very often not the case, and thus the lower aircraft weight can save fuel here too. Procedures in the air and on the ground Our procedures provide additional resources. In the Airbus Flight Crew Operating Manual, for example, there is a chapter entitled “Green Procedures”. Among other things, these allow us to switch off an engine on the way to the gate after leaving the runway and to reduce fuel consumption. But air traffic control is also working on increasing efficiency. In this way, detours and the associated increased consumption and emissions are to be prevented in the future. The coordination of the approach sequence in Zurich early in the morning should also be mentioned as a positive example. Since a time slot for the arrival has been assigned to each of the arriving aircraft by means of «istream», there is hardly any need to fly waiting lines (see also «Making a virtue out of necessity» in the «Rundschau» issue 4/2016). Last but not least, the possibility of CO 2 offsetting should also be mentioned. This measure gives passengers the opportunity to pay a small amount in addition to the ticket price, which is then invested in climate protection projects. With this money, for example, CO 2 emissions are saved in developing countries by using more modern equipment there, for example to generate energy. It cannot be denied that aviation is doing its part to climate problems. However, it should be clearly stated that enormous efforts and resources have to be invested in order to minimize the emission of all pollutants. Airlines, aircraft and engine manufacturers and the legislature work hand in hand.Because it is in everyone's interest to protect our climate. l Rundschau