The wing span influences the ability to shoot shape

Change in values ​​and self-portrayal in Japanese Kyûdô from the Taishô period to the present


1 Change in values ​​and self-portrayal in Japanese Kyûdô from the Taishô period to the present Inaugural dissertation for obtaining a doctorate from the Philosophical Faculty of the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn presented by Rita Németh from Budapest, Hungary Bonn 2018

2 Printed with the approval of the Philosophical Faculty of the Reinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn Composition of the examination committee: Prof. Dr. Reinhard Zöllner, Institute for Oriental and Asian Studies (Chairman) Prof. Dr. Harald Meyer, Institute for Oriental and Asian Studies (supervisor and reviewer) Prof. Dr. Peter Pantzer, Institute for Oriental and Asian Studies (reviewer) Prof. Dr. Daniel Schley, Institute for Oriental and Asian Studies (another authorized examiner) Day of the oral exam: May 9th

3 About the transcription The Japanese transliteration follows the modified Hepburn transliteration. The long vowels a, i, u, e and o are indicated by a circumflex (â, î, û, ê, ô). The spelling is italic and small. Example: kyûjutsu. Circumflex does not apply to the adoption of title information or proper names. Example: Kyudo Manual, All Nippon Kyudo Federation, Deutscher Kyudo Bund. Japanese personal names, organizations, and place names are written in capital letters with a circumflex. Japanese terms that have been adopted into the German language and are listed in the Duden are written straight and capitalized. Example: Budô, Jûdô, Shôgun. Exception: Kyûdô is not listed in the Duden, but is written according to this rule. Personal names are given in the form customary in Japan: The family name is given in the first place, the first name in the second place. Exceptions are quotes from publications in Western languages ​​and information on the second and third author in the bibliography. In these cases, Japanese first and last names appear according to German regulations. About the translation The translations of the Japanese sources were made by the author herself. There is no additional reference to this in the text. Translations by other authors are explicitly marked as such. About the glossaries Japanese personal names and Japanese terms are listed in alphabetical order with characters in a glossary of persons and characters in the appendix. 2

4 Acknowledgments By presenting the study on the change in values ​​in the Japanese culture of movement, Kyûdô would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who has supported me in my many years of research. My thanks go first to my doctoral supervisor, Prof. Dr. Harald Meyer. His professional suggestions and his understanding of my situation motivated me to bring this research project to a good end while working. Professor Dr. Special thanks go to Peter Pantzer for his many years of accompanying the work and for taking on the second scientific report. My thanks also go to Professor Reinhard Zöllner for taking over the chairmanship of the examination committee. The focus of the research was in Japan, since the sources for the very extensive Kyûdô literature were only accessible there. The research work in the specialist libraries of the International Budo University, the University of Tsukuba and the International Research Center of Japanese Studies was made easier by advice and help. Given the abundance of material, discussions with Professor Matsuo Makinori at the Sports Science Research Institute of the International Budo University supported the selection. I am extremely grateful for the assistance of the office of the Japanese Kyûdô Federation (Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei, ZNKR) in Tôkyô, which gave me access to publications, statistics, magazines and unpublished studies in the association's own library. In addition, the ZNKR supported the establishment of contact with important personalities in the Kyûdô. The Dôjô inspection with Ms. Urakami Hiroko, the discussions with Mr. Iijima Masao, member of the ZNKR Supervisory Board and Vice President of the Kyûdô Association of the Tôkyô Prefecture, and with Mr. Usami Yoshimitsu, the Managing Director of the ZNKR, about her experiences of changing values ​​in the Kyûdô granted me a vivid insight into the lived Kyûdô history. Thanks also go to Feliks Hoff, the honorary president of the German Kyudo Federation (DKyB), who made his private documents on the German Kyûdô history available to me, as well as Karin Reich, the managing director of the DKyB, who gave me access to 3

5 German-language sources of the DKyB and was also interested in my project. There are a number of other people I would like to thank for their support. Your willingness to support and participate in my project over many years is by no means a matter of course. For example, it is Professor Hiroaki Mohri and his family who offered me accommodation in Tôkyô and who followed the research with interest and made it easier by sending me material. I would like to thank Florian Habermehl, who was studying with Mori Toshio during my stay at the University of Tsukuba Kyûdô, for the lively discussions about the current Kyûdô. I would like to thank the members of the Bonn doctoral student meeting, especially Susanne Adamski, Judith Jakobs and Elena Smolarz, for listening to my concerns with an open ear and for discussing possible solutions with me. My very special thanks go to my longtime friend Dr. Oliver Czoske and Dr. med. Johannes Haubner, licensed trainer of the German Kyudo Association, who were the first to read my manuscript and who encouraged me to improve with their constructive criticism. Finally, I would like to thank my family very much. I am especially grateful to my parents for always believing in me and supporting me. I would like to thank my husband Ferenc Kahlesz for making the analysis of the results much easier for me with his technical expertise in the field of software applications. I dedicate this study to the Nagakute Kosenjo Kyûdô group in Aichi Prefecture. I would particularly like to thank my former Kyûdô teacher Mr. Matsuoka Takaaki as well as Mr. and Ms. Kojima, Mr. and Ms. Maruya and Ms. Tanaka Kaori for always being at my side during daily training in 2005 and later with my various questions and concerns. I am grateful to you. 4th

6 Table of Contents Acknowledgments ... 3 List of Figures ... 9 List of Tables List of Abbreviations What is Kyûdô?

7 4.

8 8.2.2 Procedure for the selection of articles Case studies for the procedure Presentation of the collection of headings Change in the Kyûdô perception in selected categories of the Kyûdô booklets of the DNKK and the ZNKR Change in the Kyûdô ideals Kyûdô as a simple and elegant means of caring for life and as a guide to lifestyle in the 1920s kyûdô as a new local sport, as gymnastics with bow and arrow with special importance for physical and moral education towards the end of the 1920s and early 1930s kyûdô as a means of physical and mental training of the people in the 1930s missing notebooks in the 1940s Kyûdô as Budô of Peace in the 1950s Kyûdô as a noble art of Eastern philosophy.

9 Examination questions and answers Standardization and restructuring of the Kyûdô and Budô spirit Patriotism or nationalism and Kyûdô Kyûdô and tradition The role of trainers in Kyûdô Kyûdô spreading Kyûdô abroad Education and character formation in Kyûdô Sense and aim of Kyûdô Kyûdô for young people Kyûdô for health Bibliography


11 List of tables Table 1: The international distribution of the members of the IKYF and the teaching grades Table 2: Categories of the Kyûdô books by Dai Nippon Kyûdôkai Table 3: Categories of the Kyûdô books by Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei Table 4: Categories of the Kyûdô books by Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei Table 5: Membership development of the ZNKR Table 6: Development of the proportion of women among ZNKR members

12 List of abbreviations AFPAC ANKF Armed Forces in the Pacific All Japan Kyudo Federation Butokukai Dai Nihon / Nippon Butokukai CIE DKyuB DNKK FEC FITA Civil Information and Education Section Deutscher Kyudo Bund Dai Nippon Kyûjutsukai / Dai Nippon Kyûdôkai Arc March 1994 this English name for ZNKR exists. The Great Japanese Association for Warrior Virtue existed from 1895 to The Great Japanese Kyûjutsu / Kyûdô Association existed from 1909 to presumably The FEC existed from 1945 to 1951 to monitor the occupation of Japan. The international umbrella organization for sports archery was founded in 1931. GHQ General Headquarters IBU International Budo University IKYF International Kyudo Federation The IKYF was founded in April 2010. IOC International Olympic Committee The IOC was founded in 1894. LDP Liberal Democratic Party of Japan The party was founded in 1955. MEXT Monbushô NKR SCAP The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology / Monbu kagakushô Ministry of Education, Science and Culture Nihon Kyûdô Renmei Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers The Monbushô was renamed Monbu kagakushô (MEXT) in 2001. The name was used from 1871 to 2001, see also MEXT. The designation was used from May 1949 to December 1956, see also ZNKR. The English term for Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers was used during the occupation of Japan. ZNKR Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei NKR was renamed ZNKR in January 1957. 11

13 1 What is Kyûdô? Examples of the perception and self-portrayal of the Kyûdô 1.1 The emergence of new values ​​The German philosophy professor Eugen Herrigel () depicts Kyûdô in his book Zen in the Art of Archery in a religious context, which was published in 1948: The art of archery, understood in this way, represents a preschool of Zen and makes it possible, in initially still quite palpable actions, to make transparent events that are no longer comprehensible in and of themselves. 1 The field report, which has risen to become a world bestseller, helped Japanese archery to gain international renown. 2 Herrigel influenced both Western and Japanese Kyûdô perception, as Ursula Lytton noted in her 1990 essay Other Aspects of Kyudo, Yamada Shôji refuted in the essay Shinwa toshite no yumi to zen (The Zen Myth in the Art of Archery) close connection between Kyûdô and Zen Buddhism. 4 Herrigel, however, created a myth that has established itself in the public perception of the Kyûdô. The Japanese translation of his work appeared under the title Yumi to zen (Bow and Zen) by Itanomi Eijirô and Ueda Takeshi. 6 This work shaped the Japanese publications in the Japanese discourses. 7 Herrigel's view was taken up by the Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei, the Japanese umbrella organization for Kyûdô. 8 The mystifying way in which the Japanese in writings, lectures and conversations in which the Japanese present themselves to foreigners reinforced the myth of Zen archery. 9 1 Herrigel, Eugen Zen in the art of archery, Munich-Planegg 1954, S The bibliographic data volume World-Cat refers to translations in 24 languages ​​and numerous editions. 3 Cf. Lytton, Ursula Other Aspects of Kyudo. In: Mori, Toshio (ed.) Hosha ronshû. [Collection of essays on Hosha, shooting on foot], Tsukuba, Japan 1990, S Cf. Yamada, Shoji Shinwa toshite no yumi to zen [The Zen Myth in the Art of Archery]. In: Nihon kenkyû. Jg, S The article was published in 2001 in English: Yamada, Shoji and Earl Hartman The Myth of Zen in the Art of Archery. In: Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. Vol. 28, booklet, S The idea of ​​Zen-Kyûdô, for example, is taken up by a Brazilian couple in their book. Augusto, Jordan and Juliana Galende Kyudo. Die Stille und der Pfeil, [Madrid] Herigeru, Oigen, Eijirô Itanomi and Takeshi Ueda Yumi to zen, Tôkyô On the translator's relationship with Herriegel see Gülberg, Nils Eugen Herrigel's work as a philosophical teacher in Japan: 1. In: Waseda Blätter, March 25, 1997, S Japan discourse or Japanese theory (nihonjin ron in Japanese) is a collective term used to describe the cultural identity of the Japanese. It is not uncommon for examples of the uniqueness or otherness of Japan and the Japanese to be presented with a hint that outsiders are unable to understand the Japanese language and the essence of Japanese culture. The cultural anthropologist Aoki Tamotsu has historically reviewed the change in the Japanese discourse: Aoki, Tamotsu The Japanese discourse in historical change. On the culture and identity of a nation, Munich 1996, S cf. Yamada, Shoji and Earl Hartman Shots in the Dark. Japan, Zen and the West, Kyoto 2009, S Lytton 1990, p

14 The phenomenon presented here is a characteristic example of mutual cultural influence. The mystifying description of the Kyûdô first went from Japan to Germany and then back to Japan, in order to go out into the world from there again confirmed. In everyday Kyûdô training in Japan, some phenomena let Kyûdô appear prematurely in a spiritual context: At the beginning of the training, the Kyûdô shooters kneel in front of the place of honor (kamiza) in the exercise hall (dôjô) and recite texts in the choir. These texts with Confucian and Shingon Buddhist origins obviously have an outstanding meaning in modern Kyûdô. The recited texts Reiki shagi or Raiki shagi (The meaning of the archery ceremony) and Shahô kun (instructions on the basics of shooting) hang in many Japanese kyûdô exercise halls (kyûdôjô). They are also presented in the most important book for Kyûdô learners, in the first volume of the four-volume Kyûdô kyôhon by Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei, and are dealt with in detail therein. 10 Which values ​​convey today in the interpretation of the umbrella organization Reiki shagi and Shahô kun? Reducing kyûdô to a spiritual budô practice is a one-sided representation of Japanese archery that neglects many aspects of kyûdô perception. However, the fact that the central training hall is on the grounds of the Meiji Shrine, a Shintô shrine in the Shibuya district of Tôkyô, or that the practitioners kneel down and recite texts from Confucius in choir at the beginning of the training can cause confusion among foreigners worry, especially if they are religious themselves. This was also recognized within the umbrella organization. 11 If kyûdô is not a religious issue in Japan, how is kyûdô perceived in Japan? How can phenomena be explained, such as self-exoticization through the adoption of Herrigel's idea of ​​Zen-Kyûdô or the invention of traditions 12 through the selective perception of ancient texts, as can be observed in the case of Reiki shagi and Shahô kun? The present work describes the change in the understanding of kyûdô in Japan. This is done on the basis of a systematic study of 10 cf. Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei Kyûdô kyôhon. Shahô [Kyûdô textbook. Principles of Shooting], Tôkyô 2005b, pp. [7] - [9], In English All Nippon Kyudo Federation Kyudo Manual. Principles of Shooting (shahô), Tôkyô 1994, pp. Ix xi. 11 The question of religiosity came up in my discussions with Matsuo Makinori and Iijima Masao about the sporting and internationalization of the Kyûdô. Conversation with Iijima Masao: Kyûdô development in Japan. Németh, Rita, Tôkyô The term was introduced by the historians Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger: In order to consolidate certain norms and structures within a group, traditions are constructed in the present that did not exist historically or in a different context. Hobsbawm, Eric Introduction: Inventing Traditions. In: Hobsbawm, Eric and Terrence Ranger (eds.) The invention of tradition, Cambridge 2008, p

15 values ​​and self-portrayals of the kyûdô within Japanese kyûdô associations. 1.2 Kyûdô in current practice Kyûdô is a typical representative of the Budô disciplines, which also include Jûdô (wrestling), Kendô (sword fencing), Karatedô (foot and fistfighting) or Aikidô (defensive self-defense). 13 Traditional forms of Kyûdô are only passed down in a few ryûha (school or style) today. The majority of the Japanese population practices Kyûdô as a school sport or a popular sport. According to the present number of members of the Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei (ZNKR), Kyûdô occupies a middle place in Budô activities in Japan.With graduated members, Kyûdô is well behind Kendô (members), Karatedô (members) or Jûdô (members). The number of graduated Kyûdô members is, however, significantly higher than that of the graduated members in the Naginata (halberd fight) of or in the jûkendô (bayonet fight) of The number of people who practice Kyûdô outside the umbrella organization was not included in this count. It is characteristic of the ZNKR-Kyûdô that it is not carried out in the form of a direct combat situation with an opponent, but rather alone against a target. 15 The umbrella organization recommends Kyûdô for all generations, as both arch strength and training times can be individually adapted to one's own needs and possibilities and it is independent of partner and weather. 16 Kyûdô is equally suitable for men and women. 17 Training and examination are not separated according to sex; However, there are gender-specific rules for the basic posture and movement forms as well as the actual shooting process. For the basic posture when standing, for example, the position of the feet is determined according to gender: 13 Under the umbrella organization Japanese Budo Association (Nippon Budô Kyôgi Kai), nine associations represent the disciplines Jûdô, Kendô, Kyûdô, Sumô, Karatedô Aikidô, shôrinji kempô, Naginata and jûkendô . Uozumi, Takashi Japanese Budo Association and the Japanese Academy of Budo. Appendix 3. In: Uozumi, Takashi and Alexander Benett (eds.) The History and Spirit of Budo, Katsuura, Japan 2010, S Author unknown Yaku'in meibo [list of board members]. In: Nihon Budôkan (ed.) Nihon no budô, Tôkyô 2007, S See also Uozumi 2010, S The figures are not directly comparable because the figures given by the associations are based on different specifications. 15 Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei Kyûdô no sekai: Kyûdô to wa [The world of Kyûdô: Kyûdô is]. (March 05, 2009). 16 Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei. March 5th Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei. 5. March

16 For men, the feet are placed at a distance of three centimeters [...] from each other. The toes are not spread apart in either sex. 18 The kyûdôjô is divided into the place of honor (kamiza), the lower-ranking place (shimoza), the preparation line (honza), the firing line (sha i) and the waiting area (hikae) for the audience, the equipment and the scribe. The shooting range of the Kyûdôjô includes the shooting range over which the arrows fly and a covered hit zone (azuchi). The distance from the line of fire (sha i) to the target is exactly 28 meters. The azuchi target area is designed with a pile of earth and a heavy curtain in such a way that all arrows fired are safely caught. 19 normal bows have a length of 220 cm, the handle of the bow is not in the middle, but around the lower third of the bow. It is for this reason that this type of arch is called asymmetrical. 20 The standard training clothing consists of a white top (kyûdôgi), a dark culottes (hakama) and white footwear (tabi). It is desirable to wear exercise clothing during training; it is compulsory for exams and other occasions. The author's translations refer to this edition. For the translation of the texts from Japanese, the unpublished German translation of the Kyûdô kyôhon by Hans-Peter Rodenberg was taken into account. All Nippon Kyudo Federation Kyûdô Handbook: Principles of Shooting (Shahô). Translated by Hans-Peter Roenberg. (March 6, 2014), p. 21. The English translation by Liam O Brien from 1992 was used as a template for Rodenberger's translation. According to O Brien, this is based on the first edition of the Japanese Kyûdô kyôhon from 1953 (All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, p. 10.). The English translation, however, contains forewords and afterwords of the Kyôhon revised in 1971 (All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, p. 5 9.). It remains to be seen to what extent the changes in Japanese Kyôhon were reflected in the English publication. 19 Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S See also All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p. 28. See also All Nippon Kyudo Federation. March 6, 2014, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S See also All Nippon Kyudo Federation. March 6, 2014, p

17 Figure 1: Kyûdôjô interior view, Nagakute, Japan The equipment of the exercise room is reduced to the essentials and is entirely at the service of the Kyûdô (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). Clearly ordered rituals 22 mark the beginning and the end of each exercise unit. An atmosphere of calm, serenity and concentration is created. The practice room acts like an island in space and time. The simple and functional equipment, the prescribed behaviors and the ritualized training processes help to focus thoughts and actions and to devote oneself completely to the occupation with Kyûdô. Kyûdô is strictly regulated by the principles of shooting (shahô) presented in the Kyûdô kyôhon. These say that the training does not only consist of shooting and hitting, but includes all behavior in the training room, such as the correct forms of basic posture and movements in kyûdôjô as well as handling the equipment and exercise clothing. 23 In addition to the correct handling of the bow or the correct putting on of clothing, complex sequences of movements from picking up the bow, walking to the point of fire, the actual shot to putting the bow down, are practiced and 22 rituals are constantly being practiced here, based on the anthropologist Mary Douglas as one Understand the form of condensed communication that manifests itself in repeated symbolic actions and behavior. Douglas, Mary ritual, taboo and body symbolism. Social anthropological studies in industrial society and tribal culture, Frankfurt am Main 2004, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S See also All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, p

18 improved. 24 The perfection of this strictly choreographed process requires years of intensive training and is assessed by a multi-level graduation system of the Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei, which is composed of five levels of the Kyû and ten levels of the Dan grades. 25 At the beginning and at the end of the training, the group members gather in front of the place of honor (kamiza) to bow to an object with a certain symbolic content. This can be the Japanese national flag or a calligraphy. The bowing (rei) is performed in different variations during the training, depending on the status of the object (or person) to whom the bow is applied, sitting (zarei) or standing (ritsurei). The existence of this way of thinking and the drill of this behavior show a pronounced hierarchical thinking in Kyûdô: It is said that the bow (rei) is the basis for the education of a righteous person. Rei is an expression of respect and affection for others. The rei cannot be done without sincerity. In the process of bowing, sophistication comes to the fore, so it is essential to perform rei with dignity and elegance. To understand bowing, the forms of bowing while sitting (zarei) and bowing while standing (ritsurei) are described below. In the exercise room (dôjô) a military posture (bu no kamae) is necessary, so the bow should be performed according to the time, place and rank of the person opposite. The practice described is based on the author's experience, which took place daily from May to October 2005 on Took part in the training of the Nagakute Kyûdô Association in Aichi Prefecture. 25 Cf. with the excerpts from the examination rules in Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, pp. [196] - [198]. See also All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S All Nippon Kyudo Federation. March 6, 2014, p

19 Figure 2: Kyûdôjô external view of the examination in the ZNKR-Zentral-Dôjô in Tôkyô, photo taken by the author, November 2010 The shooting process itself is divided into eight phases (shahô hassetsu) and includes both the exact positioning of the body and the correct shooting technique to be used. The shooting should be carried out as a fluid flow of these eight phases. 27 Ceremonial archery (sharei) is particularly practiced: [] The bow was an important means for many generations to improve one's own virtue and to maintain order in the family, and to rule the state under heaven. [] Ceremonial shooting (sharei) is based on such traditional beliefs and is also a form of kyûdô, which expresses the basic behavior and forms of movement during shooting as well as the principles (shahô) and techniques of shooting (shagi). 28 Sharei is an integral part of the graduation test and is carried out by a single shooter or several shooters in harmony with one another. With a yawatashi 29, a special form of sharei, festivals, exams and competitions are opened. 30 Historically, each school (ryû) has its own form of ceremonial shooting. The standardization of principles (shahô) and shooting techniques (shagi) resulted in a 27 Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S All Nippon Kyudo Federation. March 6, 2014, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S All Nippon Kyudo Federation. March 6, 2014, S For an explanation of the origin and historical function of yawatashi see Kurosu, Ken Yawatashi, tsukeya [Yawatashi and Tsukeya]. (January 14, 2014). 30 Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S All Nippon Kyudo Federation. March 6, 2014, p

20 nationally uniform form of ceremonial shooting. 31 The goals, norms and values ​​of the Kyûdô umbrella organization manifest themselves in perfect execution. 1.3 About the codes of conduct Reiki shagi and Shahô kun There is a kyûdôjô in the historical museum of the Nagakute community, which was built to commemorate the battle between Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Oda Nobunaga in 1584 in Komaki and Nagakute. At the beginning of the Kyûdô exercise, you can watch the riflemen kneel down in front of the Japanese flag and recite texts with a bowed upper body. These are the ancient texts Reiki shagi and Shahô kun. The participants see these texts as a guide for learning technology and rules for correct behavior. For this reason, they learn the texts by heart and present them together at the beginning of the training. This process is not an isolated case in the Kyûdô. Matsui Iwao (), holder of the teacher title kyôshi seventh dan, writes in Michi no yumi that the texts Reiki shagi and Shahô kun are displayed in all kyûdôjô and are recited by the participants together at the beginning of the training. 32 Johannes Haubner, licensed trainer of the German Kyudo Federation, writes the following in a self-published article about Reiki shagi: Scrolls of both texts hang in many Japanese Kyûdôjô and in some cases these texts are even recited together by the practitioners before the training. 33 In other Budô disciplines, too, reports are given of the common recitation of so-called dôjô kun (instructions in the practice room) at the beginning or at the end of the training. The Japanologist Heiko Bittmann explains that in addition to the specific etiquette of the place of exercise, dôjô kun preferably contain society-related rules of conduct and instructions. 34 Reiki shagi and Shahô kun obviously have an outstanding meaning in Kyûdô. Both texts are in the Kyûdô kyôhon, the first volume of the four-volume Kyûdô teachings of Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei. 35 The codes of conduct are presumably mainly available in Kyûdôjô, which refer to the guidelines of the umbrella organization. In which tradition do Reiki shagi and Shahô kun originally stand? What role are they assigned today? 31 Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S All Nippon Kyudo Federation. March 6, 2014, S Matsui, Iwao Michi no yumi. Reiki shagi Shahô kun no kaisetsu [The way of the bow. Explanation on Reiki shagi and Shahô kun], Nagoya 2004, S Haubner, Johannes Reiki - Shagi (Raiki - Shagi): A translation with notes on the Confucian aspects of traditional Japanese archery. (March 5, 2009), S Bittmann, Heiko Karatedô. Masters of the four major schools and their teaching Biographies - Texts - Reception, Ludwigsburg 1999, S Matsui 2004, p. 23. Haubner. March 5, 2009, p

21 1.3.1 Reiki shagi: current function and origin Reiki shagi is understood in the Kyûdô kyôhon as a maxim to remember the Confucian values ​​and to realize these values ​​in archery and in everyday life: [...] Kyûdô [is] as one the way to cultivate virtues based on the teaching of Confucius [] 36 By seeking basic qualities in training, the five Confucian virtues of humanity (jin), justice (gi), ethical conduct (rei), wisdom ( chi) and sincerity (shin). 37 Reiki shagi describes, according to the interpretation of the Confucian umbrella organization, ethical principles and character-building ideals that can be achieved through the practice of archery (see Figure 3) Figure 3: Reiki shagi 38 in the first volume of the Kyûdô kyôhon by Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 36 Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p. 20

22 The following translation of the Reiki shagi in the Kyûdô Manual comes from Liam O Brien (), holder of the teacher title kyôshi seventh dan and former chairman of the United Kingdom Kyudo Association: Raiki shagi Record of Etiquette-Truth of Shooting The shooting, with the round of moving forward or backward can never be without courtesy and propriety (Rei). After having acquired the right inner intention and correctness in the outward appearance, the bow and arrow can be handled resolutely. To shoot in this way is to perform the shooting with success and through this shooting virtue will be evident. Kyudo is the way of perfect virtue. In the shooting, one must search for rightness in oneself. With the rightness of self, shooting can be realized. At the time when shooting fails, there should be no resentment towards those who win. On the contrary, this is an occasion to search for oneself. 39 This translation differs slightly from the Japanese original: the word kyûdô does not appear in the original text. There the character for shooting (on-reading: sha, Kun-reading as verb: iru) is used. Reiki shagi refers to the Chinese collection Lǐjì (Book of Rites), which is one of the five standard works of Confucian literature. The Lǐjì was compiled in the time of the early Han dynasty (206 BC, 220 AD). It is not a uniform work, but consists of 49 individually strung together chapters. These contain regulations on right behavior in all situations as well as detailed descriptions of various court ceremonies and sacrificial rites. 40 The Lǐjì has been available since 1885 in an English translation by the sinologist James Legge in The Sacred Books of China. Chapter 46 Shêyî (The Meaning of the Archery Ceremony) deals with the great archery ceremony of the Chinese nobility. 41 The sinologist Stephen Selby 42 writes in Chinese Archery that archery ceremonies, like many other ceremonies described in the Lǐjì, began with preparation and purification rituals and ended with sacrificial rituals and the consumption of wine and food.The English translation of the first volume of the Kyûdô published in 1992 kyôhon has made the Kyûdô teaching of the umbrella organization accessible in writing for the first time in another language. All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, pp. Ix. 40 Riegel, Jeffrey K. Li chi. In: Loewe, Michael (ed.) Early Chinese Texts. A Bibliographical Guide, Berkeley 1993, S In Legge's translation it is chapter 43. The meaning of the ceremony of archery Legge, James The Sacred Books of China. the Texts of Confucianism. pt. 4. The Lī Kī XI - XLVI, Delhi, Varanasi, Patna 1968, S Cf. In ancient times, the nobles were required to perform the Ritual of Yan before they performed their Archery Ritual. Selby, Stephen Chinese Archery, Hong Kong 2000, S Selby is the founder of the Asian Traditional Archery Research Network (ATARN). Selby, Stephen Asian Traditional Archery Research Network. (, June 8, 2014). 43 Selby 2000, p

23 archery demonstration in tune with the music was the main event. Participation was limited to people who had passed the preselection with success: Their expression and posture were compared in the rites and their movements were compared in the musical accompaniment, and those who compared favorably would be admitted to the sacrifies.44 Participation was only possible for men and, according to Shêyî, the archer not only presented his technical skills, but also his inner attitude by moving in harmony with the music: The regulating the discharge of the arrows [sic] by the playing of these pieces [hymn] was part of the moral discipline to which it was sought to make the archery subservient. 45 The skillful execution of the archery ceremony also served as a means of ascending into the aristocracy: Archery has been described as expression, or as emotional release. Expression is expression of one s own inner self; Thus the mind must be at peace and the posture erect, and upon taking up the bow and arrow, one must concentrate. With the bow and arrow in hand, and fully concentrating, you will hit the target. [...] So each archer shoots at his own target. Thus the Emperor s Great Archery Ritual is referred to as Shooting for Nobility; the aim of the shooting is to become ennobled. 46 archery ceremonies were nonetheless a means of consolidating the existing balance of power between rulers and sovereigns. The winner received more territories and the loser's land was diminished: Those who were repeatedly commended were rewarded with more feudal land, while those who were repeatedly censured suffered a reduction in their feudal land. [] This was the Emperor's method of managing his feudal lords without force of arms, and the tool whereby the feudal lords were made to behave properly of their own accord. 47 The winner of the ceremony offered wine to the losers. Rejecting the drink meant avoiding becoming dependent on others: Taking the wine signifies being supported in old age, being supported in sickness. To seek to avoid taking the wine is to avoid becoming dependent on others Selby 2000, p. 73. cf. Legge 1968, S Legge 1968, S Selby 2000, S cf. Legge 1968, S Selby 2000, S cf. Legge 1968, S Selby 2000, p

24 Figure 4: Excerpt from Shêyî in Lǐjì 49 The two sections of Reiki shagi are literal quotations from Shêyî (see Figure 4). The quotations are taken from two places: The first section is at the beginning of the Shêyî. He explains that the behavior and the movements during the archery ceremony are just as important as the result of hitting the target: Thus, archers were required to meet the requirements of the rituals on entering, leaving or making turning movements in any direction. When their minds were composed and their posture straight they grasped the bow and arrow and concentrated. Only when the archer had grasped the bow and arrow and concentrated was it possible to talk of meeting the requirements of the rituals. This was a means of assessing their virtuous conduct. 50 The second section in Reiki shagi is at the end of Shêyî. This explains the appropriate behavior of the loser: Archery was a path to righteousness. An archer sought rectitude in himself. When the archer himself is correct, then if he fires and misses, there is no point in resenting those who have beaten him: there is nothing for it but to seek the fault in himself Author unknown Sheyi [The meaning of the archery ceremony]. In: Author unknown (ed.) Lǐjì. [Book of Rites], Taipei n.d., p. 9b. [Emphasis added by the author] 50 Selby 2000, p. 71. Cf. with the translation of paragraph 2 of Legge 1968, S Selby 2000, p. 75. Cf. with the translation of paragraph 11 of Legge 1968, p

25 According to Shêyî, anyone who failed the archery ceremony had to accept nothing less than the loss of their rank and territory. In ancient China, the archery ceremony was an essential means of advancement and descent in the nobility hierarchy Shahô kun: current function and origin The Shahô kun describes in the interpretation of the Kyûdô kyôhon of Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei, how the individual training steps in shooting are carried out perfectly should (see Figure 5). Figure 5: Shahô kun 52 in the first volume of the Kyûdô kyôhon by Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei The English translation of the Shahô kun by Liam O Brien is available in the Kyûdô Manual: Shahô kun Principles of Shooting by Master Junsei Yoshimi The way is not with the bow, but with the bone, which is of the greatest importance in shooting. Placing Spirit (Kokoro) in the center of the whole body, with two-thirds of the Yunde (left arm) push the string, and with one-third of the Mete (right arm) pull the bow. Spirit settled, this becomes harmonious unity. From the center line of the chest, divide the left and right equally into release. It is written, that the collision of iron and stone will release 52 Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p. 24

26 sudden sparks; and thus there is the golden body, shining white, and the half moon positioned in the west. 53 The first sentence means that when shooting you shouldn't just concentrate on the bow and arrow, but should above all make sure that you shoot with constant use of muscles and bones: The way is not with the bow, but with the bone, which is of the greatest importance in shooting (shahô wa yumi o izushite hone o iru koto mottomo kanyô nari). 54 The penultimate sentence illustrates the great energy that is suddenly released when the arrow is released: It is written, that the collision of iron and stone will release sudden sparks (sho ni iwaku tesseki aikokushite hi no izurukoto kyû nari). 55 The last sentence relates to the posture immediately after the release (zanshin): [] and thus there is the golden body, shining white, and the half moon positioned in the west (sunawachi kintai hakushoku, nishi hangetsu no kurai nari). 56 The Shahô kun is attributed to Yoshimi Junsei from the Chikurin School of the Kii Province 57 (Kishû Chikurin ryû). According to Kyûdô kyôhon, this excellent marksman of the Edo period was originally called Daiemon Tsunetake. The name change happened in the later years of his life when he lived as a monk in the Daitoku temple in Kyôto. 58 Yoshimi Junsei is said to have provided the Shahô kun with a foreword (see Figure 6). The previously known reprints of the Shahô kun with a preface, however, contain words such as kyûdô or riyôshi (to use, to use), which were not yet common in the Edo period. 59 The extent to which this is an original needs to be clarified through further investigations. The fact that the Shahô kun is a collection of quotations from a much larger work is not mentioned in Kyûdô kyôhon. In Michi no Yumi, Matsui Iwao refers to the Bishû Chikurin ryû shikan no sho (Four Books of the Chikurin School of Owari Province 60) as the source of the Shahô kun. 61 These books 53 All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, p. Xi. 54 Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p. 54.See also All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p. 55.See also All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p. 55. See also also All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, S Kishû refers to the old province Kii (Kishû), which today corresponds roughly to the prefecture of Wakayama and the southern part of the prefecture of Mie. 58 Yoshimi Junsei taught, among others, Wasa Daihachirô, who in 1686 set a record with 8133 hits in long distance shooting (tôshiya). Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p. 53. See also Matsui 2004, pp. 48 and 96. All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, S Kurosu, Ken Shahô kun [instructions on shooting basics]. (January 16, 2016). 60 The addition Bishu refers to the historical province of Owari (Bishû), which today corresponds to about the western half of Aichi prefecture. 61 Matsui points out that the same volumes are said to have come down to us in Kishû Chikurin ryû; its 25th

27 are attributed to the Shingon Buddhist monk Ishidô Chikurinbô Josei (? 1591), the founder of the chikurin style of the Heki school 62 (Heki ryû Chikurin ha). Figure 6: Reprint of Shahô kun with foreword 63 Ishidô's second son Chikurin Satatsugu is said to have completed his father's treatise Heki ippen sha (A work on archery by the Heki) in the form of four volumes. 64 Bishû Chikurin ryû shikan no sho consists of the books Hakkan no maki, Kachisha no maki, Chûô no maki and Fubo no maki. 65 Hakkan no maki begins with instructions for the shooting guide and continues with explanations about the basic design of the school's shooting form. Kachisha no maki describes the essential characteristics of the teaching in the Japanese poem form waka. Chûô no maki represents the teaching using religious terminology. Fubo no maki, which also as investigations, are limited to the volumes of the Bishu branch of the Chikurin ryû. Matsui refers to the 33-part series of lectures by Uozumi Bunei published in Kyûdô magazine. Uozumi, Bunei Bishû Chikurin ha shikan no sho: 1 [Shikan no sho of the Bishû Chikurin school. 1]. In: Kyûdô, issue 434 July 1986, S The series was published from issue 434, July 1986 to issue 472, September 1989. Uozumi joined the Tokufû Dômonkai (Tokufû Association) in 1951 and became the 14th legal successor of the Chikurin ryû Hoshino ha in 1992. Matsui 2004, p. 49. Tokufû dômonkai Bishû Chikurin ryû keifu [Genealogy of the Bishû Chikurin School]. (b). 62 This school does not go back to Heki Danjo Masatsugu, the founder of Heki ryû, but to Heki Yazaemon Noritsugu. Matsuo, Makinori The History and Spirit of Kyudo. Chapter IV. In: Uozumi, Takashi and Alexander Benett (eds.) The History and Spirit of Budo, Katsuura, Japan 2010, S Kurosu. January 16, Matsui 2004, S Matsui 2004, p. 51. See also Uozumi. In: Kyûdô, booklet, S Tokufû dômonkai Bishû Chikurin ryû denshô [traditions of the Bishû Chikurin school]. (a). 26

28, the deepest mystery (ôgi), deals with the oral transmission of the teaching from the previous three volumes. 66 Bishû Chikurin ryû shikan no sho conveys theory and practice of the Chikurin school with the teaching of Shingon Buddhism in the background. 67 Individual movements of the Shahô kun come from different parts of the volumes: The penultimate movement presented previously was taken from the Fubo no maki and the last movement from the Chûô no maki. 68 After a detailed study of the four volumes, Matsui comes to the conclusion that the Shahô kun contains both technical and spiritual aspects: it is believed that Shahô kun teaches a shooting method that leads to accuracy. Although this aspect is very pronounced, after a thorough examination of the text you can see that it is not just about the technology. Shahô kun introduces the world of the Shingon Buddhist teachings of the cosmic Buddha Dainichi Nyorai. 69 Although the origin of the Shahô kun lies in the Shingon tradition, the explanations in the Kyûdô kyôhon on the Shahô kun, in which there is no reference to a religious connection, indicate that the main focus of the ZNKR interpretation is on the Reiki shagi and Shahô kun refer to the practical aspect of kyûdô practice as invented traditions. Reiki shagi and Shahô kun are short sections of text that reflect the ideas of Confucian and Shingon Buddhist teachings. They are removed from the actual context of the text and are not used for the purposes of the umbrella organization, either in a spiritual or in a religious sense. Reiki shagi and Shahô kun seem to play a role in modern Kyûdô as invented traditions 70: The traditional texts were revised until they exactly corresponded to the conception of the essence and purpose of the Kyûdô. Reiki shagi is intended to encourage practitioners to behave ethically and morally both during training and in everyday life. Shahô kun points out the precise execution of the technique. 1.4 About the unique beauty of the Kyûdô The beauty of execution is of particular importance in the Kyûdô. This perception is already clear in the note on the revision of the first volume of the four-volume Kyûdô kyôhon in 1971: 66 Tokufû dômonkai a. 67 Tokufû dômonkai a. Matsui 2004, S Tokufû dômonkai a. Matsui 2004, S Matsui 2004, S Hobsbawm 2008, S

29 In Kyûdô, Japan, hitting the target is not a priority. The kyûdô must express the beauty of harmony. 71 Along with the true (shin) and the good (zen), the beautiful (bi) is one of the highest goals in the ZNKR-Kyûdô. To explain these key terms, the Japanese umbrella organization refers to Confucian ideas. The legendary Chinese philosopher Lǎozǐ, the journalist Hasegawa Nyozekan and the German philosopher Eugen Herrigel are quoted to explain the beauty of the Kyûdô. 72 What is the original context of these quotations? How are these interpreted to portray the unique beauty of Japanese archery? The historian Andrew E. Barshay describes Hasegawa Nyozekan 73 () in State and Intellectual in Imperial Japan as a versatile independent journalist, liberal spirit and advocate of democracy who unequivocally opposed Japan's military aggression, for example in the 1932 article Nihon fuashizumu hihan ( Critique of Japanese Fascism) was published by Hasegawa Rei no bi (The Beauty of Etiquette). In it, Hasegawa explains the etiquette in Confucian teaching (jukyô ni okeru rei) and philosophizes about the connections between the beautiful and the good. He discusses the historical change of the term the beautiful (bi) in Japan, the beautiful in modesty (ken ni tôshita bi) as well as etiquette and simplicity (rei to sabi). In the chapter Kyûdô to chadô (The Archway and the Teaway) Hasegawa writes in detail about the unique beauty of the Japanese arch. This representation can be found in the Kyûdô textbook: [] No other bow in the world has a form and curvature that is as aesthetically pleasing as that of the Japanese bow. [] 75 In the Kyûdô textbook, Hasegawa's idea of ​​the unique beauty of the Japanese bow is taken up and, with the help of a quote from the Dàodéjīng, expanded into a thesis that says that the greatest beauty unfolds in the connection of the bow with the archer's body: Master Hasegawa s descripiton most poetically describes the visual beauty of the bow and its dynamics. The perfect balance of opposites gives the bow its beauty. Lao-Tse [] also used the bow as an analogy for the balancing of the universal opposites. The balance of the weak 71 Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S, Hasegawa Nyozekan is the stage name of Hasegawa Manjirô. 74 Barshay, Andrew E. State and Intellectual in Imperial Japan. The Public Man in Crisis, Berkeley 1988, S All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, S See also Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S Cf. Hasegawa, Nyozekan Rei no bi [The Beauty of Etiquette], Tôkyô 1944, p

30 to the strong was like the Way of Heaven (Tendô). The way to heaven is like the bending of a bow. This balance of opposites is beauty itself. 76 The Dàodéjīng quotation in the Kyûdô kyôhon refers to section 77 of the Dàodéjīng. Section 77 in the translation of the sinologist Hans-Georg Moeller: The Dao of heaven is like flexing a bow: what is high is lowered, what is below is lifted, where there is abundance, it is taken away, where there is a lack , it is added to. Thus the Dao of heaven takes away where there is abundance and gives where there is a lack; the Dao of humans takes away where there is a lack and offers more where there is abundance. Well, who can, when having an abundance, still offer more to heaven? Only the one who has the Dao. Therefore the sage makes but does not possess, does not reside where he completes his undertaking. Thus is his unwillingness to be looked upon as worthy. 77 After comparing several German translations, the sinologist Jörn Jacobs recommends the translation by the sinologist Ernst Schwarz in the text study of the Laozi, due to the concise formulation and artistic design: isn't the duration of the sky like the drawing of the bow? the high is pressed down the low is lifted from the abundance is sparse outweighed the sparse the dhow of heaven takes from the abundance the sparse outweighs the dhow of man it is sparse from the sparse to feed the abundance but who has enough, with his abundance the world to dine? but only the wise is the wise: does and demands nothing for himself, does not take for himself what he has accomplished and does not want to be praised 78 The balance in drawing the bow is shown to illustrate the heavenly action in relation to the human. Section 77 is a teaching on acting wisely for society to prosper: Only a society that operates in accord with the Dao will be able to prosper in this way. 79 In the Kyûdô kyôhon, detached from the original text, only part of it is presented in order to demonstrate the beauty of the arch: Lao-Tse also says: The way of heaven is like the bending of an arch and he compares the balance of strength and weakness with the way of heaven. In this way the greatest harmonization of strength and weakness is the beauty of the bow. 80 The Chinese classic seems to be serving the kyûdô here. The Hungarian Jesuit and theologian Gellért Béky criticizes a similar approach to Dàodéjīng in the book Die Welt des Tao: 76 All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, p. 16.Cf. Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S Moeller, Hans-Georg and Laozi. Daodejing (Laozi). A Complete Translation and Commentary, Chicago, Ill 2007, S Jacobs, Jörn Textstudium des Laozi, Daodejing, Frankfurt am Main 2001, S Moeller and Laozi. 2007, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p. 32. All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, p

31 The Tao-te-chin has long been part of the classical repertoire of speakers, with which the strangest views are proclaimed. All these speakers wear the cloak of the Chinese wise men [] 81 Beauty as a characteristic feature of Japanese archery is demonstrated in the Kyûdô kyôhon with the help of a quote from Eugen Herrigel: Eugen Herrigel, the German professor of philosophy, writes: The English bow is made with arm strength tightened at the level of the shoulders; however, the Japanese bow is lifted up and then pulled apart as it is lowered, using only the force necessary to open the arms. In this failure to use force in opening the bow lies the beauty of shooting. 82 The quotation differs from the corresponding passage in Herrigel's book Zen in the Art of Archery (1954): In addition, the Japanese bow is not held at shoulder height like the European sports bow, so that one can, as it were, push into it. Rather, as soon as the arrow is inserted, it is picked up with almost straight arms so that the archer's hands are above his head. So there is nothing left but to pull them apart evenly to the right and left, and the further they move away from each other, the deeper they move, describing curves, until the left hand holding the bow is at eye level with an outstretched arm, the right hand of the bent right arm, on the other hand, which pulls the tendon, is located above the right shoulder joint, so that the tip of the arrow, which is almost a meter long, protrudes only a little over the outer edge of the bow - that is how large the span is. Only the shooter has to remain in this position for a while before the shot can be released. The effort required for this unusual kind of tensioning and holding meant that after a few moments my hands began to tremble and my breathing was difficult and difficult. 83 The original text describes the essential difference between the sports bow and the kyûdô bow in bow stretching, but does not contain any evidence that the force is not used when opening the [Japanese] bow in which the beauty of shooting is supposed to lie. The corresponding section of text is also in Herrigel's article The Knightly Art of Archery (1936) in a different context: Already at the first attempt I noticed that I had to use strength, and indeed quite a lot of physical strength, I wanted to draw the bow. In addition, it is not held at shoulder height like the English sports bow, so that you can actually push yourself into it. Rather, the Japanese bow is raised so high that the hands are above the archer's head: then all pressing and prying cease, the hands are rather pulled apart until the left hand is at eye level with the left arm outstretched , the right hand of the flexed right arm is above the right shoulder joint - creating a very considerable 81 Béky, Gellért Die Welt des Tao, Freiburg (Breisgau), Munich 1972, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p. 44. [emphasis added the author] 83 Herrigel 1954, p

32 wingspan is reached. The shooter has to remain in this position for some time before he is allowed to release the shot. And this not only meant that after a few seconds my arms began to tremble from the exertion, but also that my breathing became increasingly difficult, so that when the shot was fired I first had to recover from my shortness of breath. And since this was repeated day after day, the drawing of the bow remained a hard effort and despite all the practice did not want to become spiritual, I consoled myself with the thought that the master speaks so mysteriously so that the student does not come to it so quickly, that tensioning is a trick that I would probably find one day. 84 In this section Herrigel does not describe the efficient use of force when drawing the Japanese bow, but rather his efforts in handling it. Only later at the point [I] consoled myself [] that the tensioning was a trick, Herrigel suspects that opening the bow could also work with less effort. The Japanese translation by Kitajima Yoshio is based on the German original published in Nippon magazine in 1936. He used two translations of Shibata Jisaburô for his translation. 85 Kitajima's translation is very close to the German original and also contains no indication of effortless, beautiful or elegant handling of the kyûdô bow: In addition, this bow is not held at shoulder height like the English sports bow when tensioning so that the full force can be pushed into it. The archer lifts the Japanese bow as high as possible above his head. In this case, the pushing and prying will go away on their own. Rather, the hands are opened. This is done until the left hand is at eye level with the arm outstretched and the right hand is at the level of the right shoulder joint with the arm flexed. 86 The quote in the Kyûdô kyôhon for this only the force that is necessary to open the arms has to be used is a wrong interpretation from there all pressing and prying stop, the hands are rather pulled apart in Herrigel's article. Herrigel describes the process of stretching the bow in the quoted passage, but does not describe it as easy, beautiful or elegant. The quoted section of text does not actually contain a clear statement in the original that the unique beauty of Japanese archery was noticed and appreciated by the philosopher Herrigel. 84 Herrigel, Eugen The knightly art of archery. In: Nippon. Journal of Japanese Studies. Vol. 2, Issue, S The first translation was published in 1936 in the magazine Bunka by Tôhoku Teikoku Daigaku Bunkakai, the revised version was published in 1941 by Iwanami Shoten. Herigeru, Oigen and Jisaburô Shibata Nihon no kyûjutsu, Tôkyô Cf. Kitajima, Yoshio Shadô. Waga shi no oshie [The way of shooting. The teaching of my master], Kunitachi (Tôkyô) 1995, S Gülberg, Nils Eugen Herrigel's work as a philosophical teacher in Japan: 2. In: Waseda Blätter, March 25, 1998, S Kitajima 1995, p

33 The thesis about the unique beauty of the Kyûdô is substantiated three times in the Kyûdô kyôhon. The quote from the Chinese classic confirms that it is an ancient knowledge; the second quote from a democrat supports the need for renewal of the kyûdô as a democratic discipline in the post-war period; the third quote from a prominent admirer from abroad ensures confirmation and recognition from outside. The beautiful thus gains legitimacy as a central theme in Kyûdô. 1.5 About the understanding of sport in the Kyûdô The sport historian Irie Kôhei reported in an interview for the Kyûdô magazine in 2003 about the disagreement in the debate as to whether Budô is identical with sport. He is of the opinion that Budô was originally to be regarded as the culture of movement in Japan and that sport should originally be regarded as the culture of movement in England: In the past, there were also major disputes in the Japanese Academy of Budo (Nihon Budô Gakkai). There was also a symposium on this, which was unsuccessful. It depends on how you define budô or sport. The fact is that there are few people who firmly claim that budô is sport. Budô is a culture of movement (shintai undô bunka) that emerged from Japan's special geographical location; Sport is a culture of movement that originated in modern England. There are certainly differences in the perception of technology, mind and body, in the posture and behavior acquired as a result, as well as in the associated appreciation. 87 Kyûdô representatives like to use an entire chapter in introductory and training books to defend Kyûdô against sport. 88 In the Kyûdô kyôhon, Kyûdô is not explicitly presented as a sport, but as a peaceful, democratic, sporting and international discipline. The peaceful disposition in Kyûdô shows itself precisely in the competitive situation: Since archery today is a competitive discipline, there are opponents, victory and defeat. [] Kyûdô, however, is never a war. Therefore, even if there is victory and defeat in kyûdô, it must never be practiced for the sake of victory or to produce a loser. 89 The example is not chosen by chance, the modern kyûdô is supposed to stand out from the earlier martial spirit of the budô. This distancing becomes clear in the explanation of the democratic character of the Kyûdô: Democratic means that the perception of the Kyûdô in contrast to the egocentric attitude of the prewar period and author unknown Kichô de okufukai kyûdô bunka sekkyokuteki ni hozon, kenkyû o "Budô bunka no tankyû" Irie Kôhei san kataru [Irie Kôhei, author of the book "Search for Budô Culture", who actively preserves and explores the precious and profound Kyûdô culture, tells the story]. In: Kyûdô, issue 638 July 2003, S See for example Matsui 2004, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p

34 during the period of the Pacific War. The sporty character developed in the post-war period. The international character lies in the fact that Kyûdô performs extremely well in comparison with the equipment and techniques of foreign archery, which is why Kyûdô should be spread internationally in the future. 90 In the Kyûdô kyôhon, a distinction is made between Kyûdô as a sporting leisure activity for the majority of the population and Kyûdô as asceticism with the aim of experiencing the quintessence of the path: The sporting character of modern Kyûdô is becoming stronger, so it goes without saying that Kyûdô is popular and as a leisure activity is loved. Kyûdô not only has this character, there is also an ascetic path in which one strives for the core of the path amid pain and suffering []. This is of course not required by the broad masses, but one must not overlook this high level of the Kyûdô. 91 The goals of this exalted practice, whether it should lead to the attainment of virtues and the consolidation of character, are not further elaborated. It is emphasized, however, that kyûdô should not be practiced for fun, physical education, or health. Kyûdô is said to enrich everyday life and to be a high level of spiritual pleasure (seishinteki yuetsu). 92 The uniqueness of kyûdô is also evident in comparison to results-oriented foreign archery: the aim of foreign archery (kyûsha) is to hit the target based on technique, therefore it is apparently kyûjutsu. Due to the bow technique, the method differs more or less from the Japanese (nihon no mono). 93 For foreign archery, the word kyûsha, a combination of the characters for a bow and an arrow, is used. That means something like that an arrow is shot with a bow. Opposite this is the word kyûdô, the bow path, for Japanese archery. The word kyûjutsu, a combination of the characters for bow and for technique, is understood here as technique and hit-oriented archery. However, it remains unclear what is meant by foreign archery. Is it western sports archery or all kinds of archery that are not from Japan? In the rhetorical question of whether foreigners are 90 Cf. Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S The English translation of the corresponding chapter Modern Kyûdô in the Kyôhon differs in part strongly from the Japanese original text. See also All Nippon Kyudo Federation 1994, S Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, S Cf. Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p. 34, Zen Nihon Kyûdô Renmei 2005b, p