Should we erase Waldbraende
Forest fire fighting strategies
Extinguishing ground fires
Manually: Forest visitors are often the first to arrive at the scene of the fire. They are encouraged to call for help and, if possible, try to knock out the fire with twigs and branches (preferably pine). The fire residues should be swept into the fire area in order to extract as much energy as possible from the floor fire. Rescue workers who arrive later should dig an aisle armed with a spade or shovel and throw the excavated material (without humus content, high sand content) on the edge of the fire. Fighting the fire with water is carried out with hand tools and D-pipes. It is essential to prevent the ground fire from ripping over trees and their crowns and thus becoming a full fire.
Technical / on the ground: A tractor or similar device can take over the application of a wound strip. However, this activity must be supported by the manually working emergency services, in which the applied wound strip is freed of dry grass, humus, cones and / or stump residues so as not to catch fire.
Technical / from the air: By dropping water from airplanes, you can create damp areas at the edge of the ground fire in order to contain the fire. The rest of the control is done from the ground.
Extinguishing full fires
Manually: Firefighters act as teams of fire engines with spades, hoes or shovels against the ground fires of a full fire. Combat takes place with C-pipes. If the throwing distance is no longer sufficient, a defensive approach is recommended. Curbing the ground fire is a priority as it is a waste of water and energy to shoot fire-fighting water into burning tree tops.
Technical / on the ground: As with a ground fire, tractors create wound strips. The wound strips on the flanks serve to maintain the containment successes that have been achieved so far. Accordingly, a forest plow is also used at the top of the fire.
Technical / from the air: Like a ground fire to support the emergency services on the ground. In this process, damp areas are created in advance in order to narrow and seal off the fire.
Line of defense: In advance, an attempt must be made to create a stable line of defense in order to stop or at least slow down the fire roller in parts.
Wildfires are to be assigned to the ground fires, which differ only in the vegetation, because they are grass areas and grain fields. Due to the particular size of the surface and the low moisture content of the vegetation, these fires can develop high speeds. Therefore, there are some safety rules to be observed when fighting these fires:
- Frontal attacks against the wind by fire fighting teams should be avoided.
- Attacking the front of the fire with fire engines is possible, but it involves great dangers. The crew is at risk due to the rapid spread of the fire and the high level of smoke. If you decide to fight frontally, you have to pay attention to the passability of the paths and you should drive back to the place of action so that an escape to the front is possible and safe. If a fire engine is on fire despite all safety precautions, no intervention may be made, as it behaves like a dangerous goods transporter due to compressed air tanks, fuel canisters, etc.
- The front and flank were to be attacked by fire trucks and teams from the burned area.
- Natural catchment lines such as deciduous forests, "green" meadows or roads are to be used or created by the farmer using a plow or tiller.
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