Which words can go before a line

Typesetting

The appearance of the text on your page is based on a complex interplay of processes, the so-called sentence. Based on the selected settings for word and character spacing, glyph scaling and hyphenation, the text in InDesign is set in such a way that the text image corresponds best to the specified parameters.

There are two typesetting methods available in InDesign: the Adobe Paragraph Composer (standard method) and the Adobe One-Line Composer. (Both are accessible from the Control panel menu.) The composition method can be selected from the Paragraph panel menu, the Spacing dialog box, or the Control panel menu.

InDesign supports four typesetting methods: Adobe Japanese Single-line Composer, Adobe Japanese Paragraph Composer, Adobe Paragraph Composer, and Adobe One-Line Composer. Each typesetter evaluates possible breaks for Japanese and Latin texts and selects those that best support the hyphenation and justification settings chosen for a paragraph. The Adobe Japanese Paragraph Composer is selected by default. For more information on these options, see InDesign Help.

See Mind the Gaps in InDesign Magazine for information on troubleshooting typesetting problems.

There are two typesetting methods available in InDesign: the Adobe Paragraph Composer (standard method) and the Adobe One-Line Composer. Both methods calculate possible breaks and choose the break that best supports the hyphenation and justification settings chosen for a paragraph.

This composer analyzes the breaks for the entire paragraph. In this way, the lines at the beginning of the paragraph can be optimized in order to avoid particularly unfavorable breaks in the following lines. Setting at paragraph level creates more even spacing and fewer hyphens.

When setting text, the paragraph composer identifies possible breaks, evaluates them and classifies them using criteria such as B. Character and word spacing as well as hyphenation.

The dialog box "Hyphenation" can be used to determine the relationship between optimal spacing and the number of hyphens. (See Hyphenation in Text.)

This composer is the traditional method for setting text line by line and is particularly helpful if you want to limit the changes to the text image by making final corrections.

Choose a typesetting method for a paragraph

  1. Do one of the following:

    • Choose Adobe Paragraph Composer (default) or Adobe One-Line Composer from the Paragraph panel menu.

    • Choose Spacing from the Paragraph panel menu or the Control panel menu, and then choose an option from the Composer menu.

Under certain circumstances, additional set engine modules from other providers with the associated interfaces for adapting the engine parameters are also available.

Define sentence preferences

  1. Choose Edit> Preferences> Composition (Windows) or InDesign> Preferences> Composition (Mac OS).

  2. To highlight sentence problems on the screen, activate the options "Paragraph break violations" and "Hyphenation and alignment violations".

  3. To align text with a contour guide around an object, activate the option "Align text next to object".

  4. Under Mojikumi Compatibility Modes, choose whether you want to select “Use New Vertical Scaling” or “CID-based Mojikumi”.

The hyphenation and alignment settings affect the horizontal spacing of lines and the visual appearance of text on a page. The hyphenation options determine whether words can be hyphenated and which hyphenation points are allowed.

The alignment is controlled by the selected alignment option, the specified word and character spacing, and the glyph scaling. You can also justify individual words in narrow columns of text that is justified.

Eda Warren's Mind the Gaps article provides information on avoiding sentence problems.

You can hyphenate words manually and automatically, or you can combine the two methods. The safest way to manually separate text is to insert a conditional hyphenwhich is only visible when the word has to be separated at the end of a line. Use a conditional hyphen at the beginning of the word to prevent the word from being hyphenated.

  1. Click with the Type tool where you want to insert the hyphen.
  2. Do one of the following:

    • Choose Type> Insert Special Characters> Hyphens And Dashes> Conditional Hyphen.

    • Press Ctrl + Shift + - (Windows) or Command + Shift + - (Mac OS) to insert a conditional hyphen.

A conditional hyphen in a word does not guarantee that the word will actually be hyphenated. This also depends on other hyphenation and sentence settings. However, a conditional hyphen in a word guarantees that the word can only be hyphenated where the hyphen appears.

Automatic adaptation of the hyphenation

Hyphenation is based on word lists stored in a separate dictionary file or in the document itself. To ensure consistent hyphenation, you can select which word list to use. This is particularly useful if you are sending the document to a print service provider or are working in a team.

  1. To turn on automatic hyphenation for a paragraph, click in the paragraph and turn on Hyphenation in the Paragraph panel or Control panel. If you do not want automatic hyphenation to take place, deactivate the option. (You can also include this option in a paragraph style.)

    With automatic hyphenation, you can determine the relationship between optimal spacing and the number of hyphens. You can also choose not to split uppercase words and the last word in a paragraph.

Set automatic hyphenation options for a paragraph

  1. Click in a paragraph or select the paragraphs you want the options to apply to.

  2. Choose Hyphenation from the Paragraph panel menu.

  3. Select the Hyphenation option.

  4. Make changes to the following settings as necessary and click OK:

    Words with at least _ letters

    Specifies the minimum number of characters for words to be hyphenated.

    Shortest prefix: _ letters, Shortest suffix: _ letters

    Specifies the minimum number of characters at the beginning or end of a word that can be broken by a hyphen. If you z. For example, if you enter the value "3", the word international after a hyphenation as internationalbut not as international or as international appear.

    Max. Hyphens _ hyphens

    Specifies the maximum number of hyphens that can be displayed on consecutive lines. A value of 0 allows unlimited hyphens.

    Specify the amount of space allowed in unjustified text at the end of a line before a word is hyphenated. This option only affects the use of the one-line composer for non-justified text.

    Optimal distances / number of dividing lines

    To change the balance between these settings, adjust the slider at the bottom of the dialog box.

    Separate capitalized words

    To avoid hyphenation for capitalized words, you must deactivate this option.

    If you want to prevent the last word in a paragraph from being hyphenated, turn this option off.

    Separate syllables across columns

    To prevent words from hyphenating across a column, frame, or page, turn this option off.

Use non-breaking hyphens to prevent words from separating at the end of a line, such as: B. with proper names or words, the separation of which would produce unsightly word fragments. By using non-breaking spaces, you can also prevent several closely related words, such as abbreviations (e.g., usually etc.) or combinations of name initials and surname (E. T. A. Hoffmann), from being distributed over several lines.

Preventing text breaks

  1. Select the text that you want to stay on the same line.

  2. From the Drawings or Controls panel menu, choose No Break.

You can also prevent hyphenation by inserting a conditional hyphen at the beginning of the word. Press Ctrl + Shift + - (Windows) or Command + Shift + - (Mac OS) to insert a conditional hyphen.

Create non-breaking hyphens

  1. Click with the Type tool where you want to insert the hyphen.
  2. Choose Type> Insert Special Characters> Hyphens And Dashes> Non-Breaking Hyphen.

Create non-breaking spaces

  1. Click with the Type tool where you want to insert the space.
  2. Choose Type> Insert White Space> Non-breaking Space (or another space character).

The width of the non-breaking space varies depending on the point size, spacing setting and word spacing settings, while the non-breaking space (fixed width) always remains the same width regardless of the context.

In the Spacing panel, you can precisely set word and character spacing and glyph scaling. Adjusting spacing is particularly useful for justified text, although you can adjust spacing for unjustified text.

Word spacing, character spacing, and glyph scaling for justification settings are ignored for CJK text. Set the CJK text spacing in the Mojikumi dialog box.

Adjust the spacing of words and characters in justified text

  1. Place the cursor in the paragraph you want to change, or select a text object or frame to change all paragraphs.

  2. Choose Spacing from the Paragraph panel menu.

  3. Enter appropriate values ​​for word spacing, character spacing, and glyph spacing. The values ​​specified for "Minimum" and "Maximum" define the permissible limit values ​​for the spacing, but only apply to paragraphs in justified sentences. With the option "Best" the desired spacing for paragraphs in justification and for other paragraphs is determined:

    The space between words created by pressing the space bar. The word spacing can be between 0% and 1000%; at 100%, no extra space is added between words.

    The space between characters, including the kerning and tracking values. Values ​​between -100% and 500% can be set. At 0%, the space between the letters is not increased; at 100%, an entire letter spacing width is added between letters.

    The width of a character (a Glyph can be any character in a font). The values ​​for the glyph scale can be between 50% and 200%.

    Word and character spacing are always applied to the entire paragraph. If you only want to change the spacing between some characters, use the "Tracking" option.

  4. The Align Single Word option lets you specify how single-word paragraphs should be aligned.

    Sometimes only one word occupies a line in narrow columns. If the paragraph is justified, a single word on a line can be stretched horizontally. Instead of using justified justification for such words, you can center or right or left justify individual words.

Set glyph scaling in justified text

  1. Click in a paragraph to place an insertion point or select the paragraphs to which you want to apply the options.

  2. Choose Spacing from the Paragraph panel menu.

  3. Under “Glyph Scaling”, enter values ​​for “Minimum”, “Maximum” and “Best”. Click OK".

You can use glyph scaling to achieve even spacing. However, values ​​that deviate more than 3% from the standard percentage of 100% can lead to distorted letterforms. Use as fine values ​​as possible, such as 97–100–103, for glyph scaling, unless you want a special effect.

Use of equalizing spaces in justified justification

The last line of a paragraph is justified with a compensating spacer with a variable space between the last word and the end of the text (e.g. a decorative font). In texts without justification, the equalizing space is displayed as normal word spacing. After justified formatting, the text is expanded to take up the available space on the last line. Adjustment spacing can have a major impact on the formatting of an entire paragraph by the Adobe paragraph composer.

  1. Click with the Type tool directly in front of the character for the end of the story.
  2. Choose Type> Insert White Space> Equal Spaces.

The effect of an equalizing space only becomes visible if you assign the option "Justification (all lines)" to the paragraph.

Marking lines that are too wide or too narrow

Since many other factors play a role in addition to word and character spacing when setting a line of text (e.g. hyphenation settings), InDesign does not always take into account the settings for word and character spacing. Problems with setting lines of text can, however, be marked in yellow, with the darkest of the three possible shades indicating the most serious problems.

  1. Choose Edit> Preferences> Composition (Windows) or InDesign> Preferences> Composition (Mac OS).

  2. Enable the Hyphenation and Alignment Violations option and click OK.