What is the feminine equivalent of bragging rights


1 "Frédéric Moreau is clearly owed a lot to his autobiography": It is not enough to state this, as this truism disguises the fact that Frédéric is not an imaginary portrait painted by Flaubert in the likeness of Gustave. Frédéric Moreau is an indeterminate and indecisive being, or better still: objectively and subjectively determined to indeterminacy and indecision. Moved into the freedom that his position as a rentier guarantees him, he is subject to fluctuations in his financial investments down to the innermost feelings of which he appears to be the subject; As we shall see, they give direction and aim to his successive decisions.1 Frédéric Moreau, “a young man of 18 years with long hair,” “recently qualified as a baccalaureate,” “that of his mother, with the most necessary money equipped, sent to Le Havre to visit an uncle whose inheritance she was hoping for her son, "this middle-class youth who is thinking" of the draft of a drama, of reproaches for paintings, of future passions ", has the point career, from which, for those apostrophized by Sartre as »Juniors of the ruling class«, all the basic »positions« of the power field and the paths leading to them can be grasped at a glance. “I still have the big streets, the ready-made paths, the clothes to buy, the squares, a thousand holes that you fill with idiots. So I will be a stopgap in society, I will fill my place in it. I'll be an honorable man, decent and everything else if you want; I'll be like someone else, neat, like all2, a lawyer, a doctor, a sub-prefect, a notary, a lawyer, whatever Judge, a stupidity like all stupidities, a man of the world or the cabinet, which is even more stupid. Because there has to be something of all of this and there is no middle. Well, I have made up my mind, I have decided, I will do my law, which instead of everything will lead to nothing ”(to Ernest Chevalier, July 23, 1839).

2This description of the field of possibilities that objectively offered itself to a bourgeois youth of the 1840s owes its objectivistic severity to an indifference, an unsatisfaction and, as Claudel said, an "impatience with regard to the limits" which came with the enchanted experience of the "vocation" incompatible are: “I'll make it to the bar, but I hardly think I'll ever advocate a firewall or an unhappy family man who has been outdone by a rich and ambitious man. If you speak to me about the court and say: this fellow will make good arguments because I have broad shoulders and a resounding voice, I confess to you that I rebel inside and that I do not feel made for this material and trivial life «(To Gourgaud-Dugarzon, January 22, 1842). It would be in vain if one were to expect Frédéric to be just as open about his rejection of all professional "positions". Certainly we are told that he “objected” when Deslauriers, referring to the example of Rastignac, cynically sketched out the strategy with which he would be successful: “Make yourself so that you please him [Dambreuse] and his wife too . Become her lover! «(EdH, P. 30) 3. Certainly he looks "contemptuously" at the other students and their usual worries and occupations (EdH, P. 38); his contempt and indifference to the success of the stupid are fed by "claims" that are "much higher" (EdH, P. 89). But it remains: without bitterness or indignation, he envisions the future of a public prosecutor or parliamentary speaker (EdH, P. 121).

3But like the indifference he sometimes shows towards the common objects of bourgeois ambition, ambitious dreaming is only a secondary effect of his idealized love for Madame Arnoux, an imaginary support, as it were, of his indeterminacy and indecision: 'What do I have then to look elsewhere in the world? The others turn all their energies to wealth, fame and power. I do not have a job. You [that is, Madame Arnoux] are my only occupation, all my happiness, the goal and the center of my existence and my thoughts «(EdH, P. 365). His artistic interests, expressed from time to time, on the other hand, are neither permanent nor coherent enough to serve as an incentive for a higher claim that positively counteracts ordinary ambitions. Frédéric, who when he first appears "thinks of a draft of a drama, of allegations for paintings", who another time "dreams up symphonies", "wants to paint" and writes poems, one day begins "a novel with the title Silvio, the fisherman's son to write «, in which he stages himself together with Madame Arnoux; then again he rents "a piano and composes German waltzes"; finally decides to paint again, as it brings him closer to Madame Arnoux; to end up with ambition to write again, this time a "story of the renaissance" (EdH, Pp. 11, 27, 39, 40, 252).

4The twofold indeterminate status of the indeterminate artist thus appears to be the most perfect form of asserting the rejection of any profession (and not just negatively and for a while, like the student situation). Of course, the denial of any social determinacy, as confirmed in the decision for the position of the pure artist, is withdrawn from its reality by the indeterminacy of the artistic project. The rejection of all social localization and ties, for Gustave nothing more than the counterpart of his ambition to show himself off as an artist without ties and roots, is never developed as a positive project and as an explicit principle of all practices, that of everyday life as well as that of art , postulated; It is only recognizable in the series of passively suffered determinations that unite at the end of a long series of failed actions from Frédéric Failed who is only negatively defined, through the absence, the loss of all positive determinations that were objectively inscribed as objective potentialities in his being as a bourgeois youth, through all the opportunities that he did not "know how to seize", that he missed or has rejected.

5In a certain way Flaubert has transformed the "inactive passion" 4Frédérics, which represents less someone else than another possibility of oneself, into an explicit and systematic intention. Out of the rejection of social determinations - whether those associated with class or all the discomforts of bourgeois existence or even the genuinely intellectual characteristics - he has made a system, a "conception". "I don't want to be a member of a magazine, society, club, or academy any more than I want to be a councilor or an officer in the National Guard" (to Louis Colet, March 31, 1853). “No, Lord in Heaven! No! I will never try to publish in any journal. Seems to me today to belong somewhereTo join any guild, no matter which fraternity or which shop, and to acquire whatever title for yourself is to lose one's honor, is to throw oneself away, everything is so mean ”(to Louis Colet, May 3, 1853). The education of the heart marks a privileged moment of this transformation work, the aesthetic intention and the neutralization it contains find application to the possibility that he - while preserving it - had to negate in order to constitute himself: the passive indeterminacy of Frédéric as a spontaneous and thus just failed equivalent of the artistic Style. Indeed, Frédéric is one of Gustave's never completely outdated possibilities: About him and through all that he represents, it is made clear that aesthetic lack of interest is rooted in practical disinterest, the indefiniteness chosen as a lifestyle and indecision in the indeterminacy suffered as fate and the chosen one Curse in failure. What if the intellectual ambition were nothing more than the imaginary reversal of the collapse of worldly ambitions?

6Certainly because he is working on inventing that new way of living under bourgeois conditions, as it is taking shape in the modern artist and intellectual, and at the same time still recognizes the tacit basic principles of the bourgeois lifestyle sufficiently to dream of it, to enforce their recognition, Flaubert can also so intensely empathize with the fear that is repressed today, that is, by the intellectual rules of behavior censored - Question about the social determinants of the writing career and the position of the intellectual within the social structure and, more precisely, the structure of the ruling class. If the position of the writer or artist in terms of their genesis as well as their position-specific value is determined by the relationship they objectively maintain with the ensemble of interchangeable, albeit discretely hierarchical positions that make up the power field, then the artistic or intellectual enterprise has at its disposal no reason for existence in itself, so that it can be determined up to the illusion of absolute autonomy.

7How could the writer not wonder whether the writer's contempt for the bourgeoisie, the bourgeois, and the worldly possessions of which he makes himself prisoner - property, title, awards - is not somehow due to the resentment of the failed citizen, who is induced to turn its failure into the aristocracy of chosen renunciation? Could the autonomy that is supposed to justify this renunciation also simply be the conditional freedom that the citizen grants him, limited to his separate universe? If the revolt against the "citizen" does not remain dominated for so long by what it is directed against, as long as it does not see through the actually reactive principle of its existence: Where does the certainty arise that it is not still the "citizen"? who, by keeping him at a distance, allows the writer to keep his distance from him? 5 Just think of Frédéric's reflection, which would be worthy of Gustave when he heard of Martinot's success: “There is nothing more humiliating than to experience how fools succeed in undertakings where one has failed "(EdH, P. 89). The lack of logic in this thought conceals the whole ambivalence of the intellectual's subjective relationship to the ruling factions and their inadequately adopted forms of power. The displayed contempt for success, for what it creates, and for those who know how to achieve it, goes hand in hand with the shame-soaked recognition that is in shame and envy of the success of others as well as in that Effort is expressed, turning failure into rejection. Do not appear, according to Kafka, before a court whose verdict you do not recognize. Unable to refuse the court, Frédéric is equally unable to recognize its verdict. On the one hand, the approval of the existing order, the profound loyalism that breaks the bar over the revolt, since that which is must be; on the other hand, the conviction of superiority, which withstands all worldly denials, and even emerges strengthened from it through the reversal of insincerity.

The compossibility of all - even contradictory - possibilities that the imaginary genuinely defines, consists within the framework of the social order of the direct compatibility of all social positions that cannot be occupied simultaneously, not even immediately one after the other, between which a choice has to be made. through which one is chosen, whether one likes it or not, and despite Gustave's desperation. “That's why I love art. In any case, there is freedom there, in this world of fiction. - There one can satisfy everything, do everything, one is his king and at the same time his people, active and passive, victim and priest. No limits; mankind is like a jumping jack with bells that you let ring at the end of your sentence like a juggler at the tip of your toe ”(to Louis Colet, May 15/16, 1852) .6 What the magic of writing destroys, they are determinations, constraints and limits constitutive for social existence: To exist socially means to be located in social space and in social time, means to take a position in the social structure and to be shaped by it, in the form of verbal automatisms or mental mechanisms7 and that comprehensive habitus that grows out of the conditioning constitutive for a particular situation; also means to depend on groups, to hold by them and to be held by them, in short, by them to belong and to be tied into networks of social relationships to which material objectivity, opacity and permanence are appropriate and which are remembered in the form of obligations, debts, duties, in short determinations and compulsions.

The idealism related to the social world, like Berkeley's idealism, presupposes a bird's-eye view, the absolute perspective of the sovereign spectator who is free from dependence and work, in which the resistance of the physical and social world still asserts itself . "The only way to live in peace is to take a leap above humanity and have nothing in common with it except an eye relationship." Eternity and omnipresence: both divine attributes that the pure observer grants . “I saw the others live, but a different life than mine: some believed, others denied, others doubted, still others did not care about any of this and did their business, that is, they sold in their shops, wrote their books or shouted on their chair [...]. «8

The fundamental relationship between Flaubert and Frédéric als becomes visible here overcome and preserved possibility Gustaves. The idealism related to the social world is merely the systematic formation of the relationship that Frédéric maintains with the universe of the positions objectively offered to his "reasonable" aspirations. From then on, inscribed in the social definition of the intellectual métier, the idealistic conception of the “creator” as a pure subject without ties and roots finds its spontaneous equivalent in the dilettantism of the bourgeois youth, who, temporarily freed from social determinisms, “does not pay any attention to anyone who is "without fire and without place, without belief and without law," as Sartre put it in La Mort dans l’âme will formulate.

11The transfer of power from one generation to another is always a critical moment in the history of domestic units; among other things because it reduces the ratio of mutual appropriation between material, cultural and symbolic heritage and the biological individuals designed for and through appropriation is temporarily questioned. The tendency to persist in the mode of being of the inheritance (and thus in the entire social structure) can only be realized when the inheritance is inherited by the heir - the reverse occurs almost automatically; if, of course, through those who are temporarily entrusted with it and who have to take care of their successors, the inheritance succeeds in finding owners who are willing and able to manage the relationship mutual appropriation enter into. Objectively, this is the basis of the subjective experience described by Gustave in the letter already quoted: “So I will be a stopgap in society. So I'll be an honorable man, decent and everything [...] «.

Of all the requirements inherent in the inheritance, the most imperative is that the heir takes these requirements seriously.Frédéric does not meet these conditions: As an owner who does not want to be taken into possession of his property - without, of course, also wanting to do without it - he refuses to categorize himself, to tear himself away from the indeterminacy and to come up with the socially recognized distinctive features by making those two qualities his own which, at this time and in this milieu, alone can provide the instruments and insignia of social existence, namely a "profession" and a legitimate wife endowed with wealth. "Your behavior is starting to look ridiculous," his mother wrote to him. “And she called things by their right name: 45,000 francs pension! Moreover, 'the matter is already being discussed'. And Monsieur Roque awaits a final answer «(EdH, P. 374). In short, Frédéric behaves like an "heir" who wants to inherit without being in possession of the inheritance itself. It lacks what citizens call "seriousness", this ability to be what one is: a social form of the principle of identity that alone can establish an unambiguous social identity. Even more, by being unable to take himself seriously, by proving to be incapable of identifying in advance with the social being that awaits him (for example that of Mademoiselle Louise's "future" [EdH, P. 330]), and thus to provide guarantees of future seriousness, he unravels the "seriousness" and all "domestic or democratic virtues" of those who identify with what they are, who, as it is said, are what they do, do what is required, "bourgeois" or "socialist"; and this without having to denounce her "spirit of seriousness" as Sartre did at another time

13Frédérics' contempt for the conformist, who, like Martinon, are always ready with enthusiasm to accept the position to which they have been promised, like the wives they were promised, has its downside in indecision and psychological as well as material insecurity which one A universe that lacks every excellent goal, every safe reference point: this is the price to pay for the permissive use of the rules of bourgeois existence.10 Frédéric embodies one - and not the rarest - way of realizing bourgeois adolescence; Depending on the epoch or phase of life, this can be expressed and expressed in the language of aristocracy as well as in the phraseology of populism, in both cases, of course, with a distinctly aesthetic coloring. Citizens on demand and intellectuals for a while, the heir is awaiting his inheritance, who due to his student situation is forced to take over or mime the attitudes and poses of the intellectual for a certain period of time, is predisposed to indefiniteness and so to speak by that double contradictory determination Indecision: placed in the center of a force field that derives its structure from the opposition between the pole of economic or political power on the one hand and the pole of intellectual or artistic prestige on the other (the attraction of which is reinforced by the specific logic of the student Milieus), he is thus in a zone of social weightlessness, in which the potentially diverging forces cancel each other out and balance each other out for a while. But lack of interest and indifference, escape from reality and a penchant for the imaginary, passivity and contradicting ambitions: these are characteristics of Frédéric, suitable for a being without inner strength or, if you want, without Gravity, Heaviness (another word for seriousness, seriousness) that cannot offer the slightest resistance to social forces.

14The entangled ambitions of Frédéric (or Gustave), who brings aspirations of the literary or art student to the Law Faculty11, and the pendulum movements that lead his aspirations from one extreme of the power field to the other, from minister to writer, from banker to artist, become more understandable when they are related to the relative indeterminacy of the faction of his class of origin to which he belongs. The "capacities", as it was called in Flaubert's time, i.e. the liberal professions, prove today - and probably also proved in Flaubert's time, as evidenced by the inclination of Achille-Cléophas, for example, in the education of his children and in property of land Investing land - a position between economic power and intellectual prestige: This position, whose holders have both a relatively large amount of economic and intellectual capital, forms a kind of crossroads from which one can, with roughly the same probability and depending on secondary variables such as birth rank or gender, dominated or ruling factions of the ruling class.

Box: The field of the ruling class in the Education of the heart

At the meetings and dinners of the Arnoux (EdH, Pp. 50, 67, 114) meet next to the supports of the Industrial art, Hussonnet, Pellerin, Regimbart and - with the first - Mademoiselle Vatnaz, then regulars like Dittmer and Burrieu, both painters, the composer Rosenwald, the caricaturist Sombaz, the "mystic" Lovarias (present twice), finally occasional guests like the portraitist Anténor Braive, The poet Théophile Lorris, the sculptor Vourdat, the painter Pierre-Paul Meinsius - join in at one of the meals, a lawyer, a certain Maître Lefaucheux, two art critics, friends of Hussonnet, a paper manufacturer and "Father Oudry". On the other hand, the receptions and evening dinners of the Dambreuse (EdH, Pp. 213, 319, 458, 489), the first two separated from the others by the revolution of 1848. Here we find, besides personalities whose description is general, a former minister, the pastor of a stately congregation, two senior ones Government officials, "landowners" and personalities from the fields of art, science and politics ("The great Monsieur A., ​​the famous B., the learned C., the eloquent Z., the powerful Y., the old tenors of the left center, the paladins the Right, the Burgraves of the Middle Party ”), the diplomat Paul de Grémonville, the industrialist Fumichon, the Prefect's wife, Madame de Larsillois, the Duchesse de Montreuil, Monsieur de Nonancourt and finally, in addition to Frédéric, Martinon, Cisy, Monsieur Roque and all Daughter. After 1848 the Dambreuse also met Monsieur and Madame Arnoux, Hussonnet and Pellerin, both converted, and finally Deslauriers, who, introduced by Frédéric, was in the service of Monsieur Dambreuse. At Rosanette's two receptions - the first at the time of her liaison with Arnoux (EdH, P. 158), the second towards the end of the novel, when she plans to marry Frédéric (EdH, P. 526) - appear: actresses, the actor Delmar, Mademoiselle Vatnaz, Frédéric and some of his friends, Pellerin, Hussonnet, Arnoux, Cisy, and, besides the Comte de Palazot, other people who can also be found among the Dambreuse , Paul de Grémonville, Fumichon, Monsieur de Nonancourt and Monsieur de Larsillois, whose wife regularly visits Madame Dambreuse's salon. With the exception of his tutor and Frédérics, Cisy's guests are all noble (Monsieur de Comaing, also to be found at Rosanette's, etc.) (EdH, P. 296). Deslauriers is always present at Frédéric's meeting, and Sénécal, Dussardier, Pellerin, Hussonnet, Cisy, Regimbart and Martinon (the latter two are missing at the last meeting) (EdH, Pp. 81, 122, 186). At Dussardier (EdH, P. 354) finally, Frédéric and the petty-bourgeois faction of his friends, Deslauriers, Sénécal, as well as an architect, a pharmacist, a wine agent and an insurance clerk gather.

The objective relationship between the "capacities" and the other factions of the ruling class (not to mention the other classes) determines the unconscious attitudes of the Flaubert family towards the positions to be striven for and also structures their corresponding conscious conception of them. So one can only be astonished at how early in Gustave's correspondence the oratorical precautions that are so typical of his relationship to writing appear, with which Flaubert sets himself apart from platitudes and hollowness: "I answer your letter and, as certain pranksters say, take it." Pen to write to you '(to Ernest Chevalier, September 18, 1834). "I take up the pen (as the philistine says) to answer your letter punctually (as the same philistine also says)" (July 18, 1835). "As the true philistine says, I will sit down and take up my pen to write to you" (to Ernest Chevalier, August 24, 1838). And the reader of the Family idiots will not without astonishment discover the same stereotypical horror of stereotypes in a letter that Doctor Achille-Cléophas writes to his son, where the ritual, but not without intellectual claim, reflections on the virtues of travel suddenly lapse into a typical Flaubertian tone, with attacks against the shopkeepers vulgo philistines: »Take advantage of your trip and remember your friend Montaigne, according to which one travels to report mainly on the moods of the nations and their way of life and to› rub our brains against that of the others and to filing ‹. Look, observe and take notes; do not travel as a shopkeeper nor as a traveling salesman ”(August 29, 1840). This program for a literary journey, as it was so extensively practiced by writers and especially by the followers of l'Art pour l'art ("Look, observe and take notes; don't travel like a shopkeeper", and perhaps also the specific reference on Montaigne ("your friend"), which suggests that Gustave informed his father of his literary preferences, testify that Flaubert's literary "vocation" is rooted, as Sartre suggested, in his father's "curse" and in the relationship with the older brother - that is, all in all in a certain division of the reproductive work - but she also met Doctor Flaubert's understanding and support very early, which, if one believes this letter and other indications, such as the frequent one Reference to poet in his medical doctoral thesis, should not have been insensitive to the prestige of the literary enterprise.

Gradually, the homology relationship between the structure of the social field within which Gustave's position is determined and the structure of the social space of Education of the heart: By transferring Gustave's attitudes and dispositions to Frédéric, Flaubert unconsciously reproduced in the imaginary space of the novel the structure of the relationship that Gustave maintains with the universe of the constitutive positions of the power field, namely in the form of the relationship between Frédéric and the universe of the figures, which function as symbols for locating and representing relevant positions in social space. Flaubert's figures are not "characters" in the sense of La Bruyère, as Thibaudet believes, even if Flaubert thought of them as such, rather symbols of a social situation that are achieved by intensifying sociologically relevant characteristics: 12 For example, the various receptions and meetings win within the Education of the heart an immanent and discriminatory meaning based on the drinks offered there: from the Deslauriers beer to the "exquisite wines" of the Arnoux, Liebfrauenmilch and Tokajer, and the champagne Rosanettes, to the "great Bordeaux wines" of the dambreuse. This structure, which the novelist created in his unconscious endeavor to construct a social universe that faithfully reproduces reality, is, as in reality itself, obscured by the interactions it structures. And since the most intense of these interactions are affective relationships, emotional relationships, to which the author himself refers in advance, it is understandable that in the eyes of readers and commentators, whose "literary intuition" predisposed them little to doing so, in social structures discovering the truth of feelings, masking the true basis of their own understandability

17The social space of Education of the heart can be constructed on the basis of the definition that the various groups convey of themselves through the social practices of cooptation such as receptions, evening parties and meetings with friends. Frédéric's entire existence, like the universe of the novel in general, is built around two focuses, embodied in the Arnoux and the Dambreuse: on the one hand "art and politics", on the other "politics and business". At the intersection of both worlds, at least at the beginning, i.e. before the revolution of 1848, there is only Frédéric himself, "Father Oudry", a frequent guest of the Arnoux, albeit as a neighbor.14 The political and economic power pole is marked by the Dambreuse; from the outset they form the highest goals of political and amorous ambition: “A man who has millions, think! Prepare yourself so that you please him and his wife too - become her lover! «(EdH, P. 30) .15 Her salon welcomes "men and women who knew life," that is, the shops, to the complete exclusion, at least before 1848, of artists and journalists. The talks are serious, boring, conservative: a republic in France is declared impossible; the mouths of journalists are to be shut; one wants to decentralize, distribute the surplus from the cities to the country; The vices and needs of the "lower classes" are censured; one talks about votes, legislative proposals and counterproposals; formulates his prejudices against artists. The salons are full of art objects. You eat the best (sea bream, deer, crayfish), drink the best wines, everything is served on the most beautiful silver dishes. After dinner there is a chat; the men standing among themselves; the women sit in the background.

The opposite pole is not marked by any great artist, be he revolutionary or established, but by Arnoux: As a painting dealer, he represents the representative of money and business within the art world. In his notebooks, Monsieur Flaubert is perfectly clear: Monsieur Moreau (as Arnoux was originally supposed to be called ) is first an "art industrialist", then a "pure industrialist" .16 The word combination should be used in the designation of his profession as in the title of his magazine, Industrial art, which signal double negation, which is inscribed in the formula of this double being - like Frédéric indefinite and indecisive and thus inevitably doomed to ruin. "But his intelligence was not significant enough to achieve real art, nor was it bourgeois enough to focus solely on profit, so that he did no right to ruin himself" (EdH, P. 264) .17 The Industrial art is a "neutral ground on which all kinds of oppositions comfortably met" (EdH, P. 51), a place where artists with opposing positions in the intellectual field can meet: followers of "art social", that is, socially committed art, advocates of L'art-pour-l'art like writers who had already received the ordinations of the bourgeois public. The speeches are "informal," that is, deliberately obscene ("Frédéric was amazed at how cynical all these men were"), always paradoxical; the behavior is "natural," but the "pose" is by no means spurned. You eat exotic foods and drink “exquisite wines”. One is inflamed for aesthetic and political theories; is left, more republican like Arnoux or even socialist. But the Industrial art is also an art industry, which is therefore able to economically exploit the work of artists, because it is inseparable from it a genuinely intellectual and artistic power that is able to direct the production of writers and artists through their consecration.18 Arnoux is in a way made for the function of the art dealer: the success of his company is only guaranteed by the concealment of its truthfulness, i.e. its exploitation, by means of a constant double game between art and money: 19 Only the gentle form of violence, namely symbolic violence, has its place in the market for symbolic goods (»Arnoux loved him [Pellerin], as much as he took advantage of it «[EdH, P. 87 f.]).This double being, "a mixture of business acumen and harmlessness" (EdH, P. 531), of calculating greed and madness (in the sense of Madame Arnoux ’, but also Rosanettes - EdH, Pp. 199, 231), that is, of extravagance and generosity as well as of shamelessness and impropriety, the advantages of the two opposing logics, that of the disinterested art, in which only symbolic profits count, and that of business, can in themselves - at least for a while - because his dual nature, which goes deeper than all falsehood, allows him to grab the artists in their own game, that of disinterest and altruism, trust, nobility, friendship, in order to make them the better To leave part of it to the completely symbolic gains of what they call "fame" 20, but to reserve the material gains taken from their work for themselves. As a businessman among people who are there yourself owe not to recognize their material interest, if at all to know it, he must inevitably appear to the artists as citizens and to the citizens as artists. 21

19Located between bohème and »monde«, the »demi-monde«, represented by the Salon of Rosanette, are recruited from both opposing poles at the same time: »The salons of the cocottes (whose meaning stems from that time) were neutral soilon which the reactionaries of the various directions met one another "(EdH, P. 526). These "luxury" girls - who sometimes indulge in art, like the dancers and actresses or like the Vatnaz (half endured woman, half literary woman) - are also, as Arnoux says of Rosanette, "good girls" (EdH, P. 158). Often from the "lower classes", they do not shy away from themselves and do not ask the others to do the same. Paid to be frivolous, they drive away seriousness and boredom with the help of their imaginative ideas and extravagances. Since they are "free" themselves, they can also unleash freedom and freedom of movement. Everything that would be unthinkable elsewhere, even at Arnoux22, not to mention the Dambreuse's salon - everything is allowed with them: gossip, jokes, boasting, "lies believed to be true, improbable assertions", improper behavior ("people threw each other over oranges and corks shut the table, some left their place to chat with someone «). This milieu, made to "please" (EdH, P. 162), from which all bourgeois rules and virtues are banned, except for respect for money, which, like virtue in other places, can thwart love, 23 combines the advantages of the two opposing worlds, preserves the freedom of one and the other the luxury of others - and without adopting their disadvantages: For just as some here drop their obsessive asceticism, so others their virtue mask. And so it is definitely a "small family celebration," as Hussonnet ironically notes (EdH, P. 172), to which the "girls" invite both the artists, in whose circles they sometimes find their heartfelt friends (here Delmar), as well as the citizens by whom they are tolerated (here Oudry) as guests - a wrong one, of course Family celebration that, like the Black Mass, is still dominated by that which it negates, which one visits masked, in order to drop the true mask for a moment.

So everything seems that Flaubert has consciously selected from the social space with which he is directly or indirectly familiar that complex of positions necessary and sufficient for the construction of the social field, which he needed for the production of this type of sociological experiment: the Education of the heart. Indeed, Frédéric and his fellow students, who are temporarily united by virtue of their student existence, but have been separated in the past due to their careers and will therefore also differ fundamentally in their future careers, will differ depending on the constitutive forces of this quasi-experimental field need to define. The principle underlying the later differences between fellow students is already inscribed in the different dispositions and attitudes due to different origins: on the one hand, the "petty bourgeois", as Frédéric will later say24, Hussonet, Deslauriers and his friend Sénécal (as well as the only worker, Dussardier); on the other hand, those whom Frédéric will find again in the Dambreuse salon, be it because they belong to the "monde" because of their birth, like Cisy, "child of rich family", noble patrician, or because they are worthy of their seriousness are to be accepted into it, like Martinon, whom his father, a large landowner, had intended for the civil service.

Now, since the capacities, skills, of the individual players are defined no less than the specific stakes and the playing area, the players only have to be observed how they are busy with the objective fate involved in a certain relationship between objective structures and dispositions To make reality become reality, in short, to look at them as they age in the sociological sense of the word: In fact, social aging is measured by the number of changes in the position taken in the social structure, changes whose irreversible consequences consist in the fact that they Range of originally compatible options to shrink, or, if you want, to the number of bifurcations of a tree with diverse dead branches, a career or in retrospect curriculum vitae 25 Because a change of position can also result from a lack of shift within the social space - when an individual or a group treads on the spot while his peers or competitors advance further - Frédéric paradoxically overtakes old age and failure because of his inability, that of him how to leave the neutral point originally taken by his fellow students, to give up the state of indistinguishability that defines adolescence, to "seriously" get involved in one or the other career offered to him, in short: to accept that he is getting older.

Box: The re-misunderstanding

Frédéric's three love affairs - Madame Arnoux, Rosanette, Madame Dambreuse - could be stylized with some skill under the three terms: beauty, nature, civilization; That is the center of the picture, are the light color values. The margins, the dark values, secondary figures, on the one hand there is the group of revolutionaries, on the other hand the group of citizens, the people of progress and the people of order. Right and left, these political realities are conceived here as artist values, and Flaubert sees in them only an opportunity to once again stage the two alternating masks of human stupidity, as in Homais and Bournisien. These figures are linked to one another insofar as they relate to one another and complement one another, but they do not depend on the inner core and subject of the novel; they could be removed without changing the main motif significantly. Incidentally, I am not claiming that this is a defect: the impression of passivity, of wasting, of waning, which Flaubert wanted to convey, fits very well with this lack of necessity on the part of people, with the chance that puts them into a life for a moment like Frédérics, who is at the mercy of chance itself. In the two Upbringing one is rich and the other poor. In the two Upbringing one represents the feeling and the other the will. But in the one the rich is the man of action and in the other he is the man of feeling.

A. Thibaudet: Gustave Flaubert, Paris: Gallimard, 1935, pp. 161, 166, 170.

What does the title mean? The ›Education sentimentale‹, the education of the heart of Frédéric Moreau, that is his education through feeling. He learns to live or, more precisely, he learns what life is by experiencing love, liaisons, friendship, ambition ... And this experience leads to total failure. Why? First of all, because Frédéric is above all a dreamer in the bad sense of the word, who dreams of existence, instead of grasping necessities and limits clairvoyantly, that is, because he is largely the male replica of Emma Bovary; finally, and consequently, because Frédéric is weak-willed, most of the time incapable of making a decision, except for an excessive and extreme, a short-circuit act.

Does that mean that the Education of the heart ends in nothing? We think no. Because there is Marie Arnoux. In a sense, this pure figure redeems the whole novel. There is no doubt about that, Marie Arnoux is Élisa Schlesinger, but one, as one cannot help but think, extremely idealized Élisa. If Madame Schlesinger was a very respectable woman in many ways, everything that is known of her - her at least ambiguous demeanor during her association with Schlesinger, the at least probable fact that she was Flaubert's lover at a certain time - ends admitted that Marie Arnoux represents Flaubert's feminine ideal rather than a true and authentic picture of his "great passion". This does not prevent Marie Arnoux, as she is, in the midst of a world teeming with ambitious, conceited, sensual people, bon vivants, dreamers and reckless people, a deeply humane figure, created out of tenderness, resignation, strength, silent suffering, goodness .

J. L. Douchin: Introduction to L’Education sentimental, Paris: Larousse, 1969, pp. 15, 16-17.

At that time, people liked to be revolutionary in art and literature, or at least they believed they were, taking everything for great boldness and immense progress that contradicts the ideas that had been recognized by the two generations before the now ripe one . Back then - as now and as in all times - you let yourself be fooled by words, are enthusiastic about hollow phrases and live on illusions. In politics, Regimbart and Sénécal are types as you meet them today, as you will see them for as long as men visit bars and clubs; There are still Dambreuse and Arnoux in the business and financial worlds; among the painters of Pellerin; Hussonnet is still the plague of the editorial offices; and yet these are all people of their time and not of today; but they are of such humanity that we recognize in them the enduring characters who, instead of a fictional character whose destiny is to die with their contemporaries, create a type who will outlive his age. And what can be said of the protagonists, Frédéric, Deslauriers, Madame Arnoux, Rosanette, Madame Dambreuse, Louise Roque? No more extensive novel has ever offered the reader such an abundance of characters who were similarly shaped by characteristic features.

R. Dumesnil: En marge de Flaubert, Paris: Librarie de France, 1928, pp. 22-23.

To what extent is the love he shows him homosexual? In his excellent article "Le double pupitre", Roger Kempf has very skillfully and very astutely Flaubert's "Androgyny"286 proven. He is man and woman; I explained above that he wants to be a woman in the hands of women, but it may also be that he has experienced this variety of vassalage as a surrender of his body to the wishes of the liege lord. Roger Kempf gives confusing quotes. Especially from the second Education sentimental: On the day of Deslauriers' arrival, Frédéric von Arnoux lets himself be invited; at the sight of his friend »Frédéric began to tremble like an adulteress under the gaze of her husband (II, 24); and: "Then (Deslauriers) thought of the person of Frédéric himself. She had always exerted an almost feminine charm on him" (II, 97). So there is a pair of friends "with whom, by tacit agreement, one would play the wife and the other the husband."287 Roger Kempf rightly adds: "This distribution of roles is provided in a very subtle way [...] thanks to Frédéric's charm [...]". The Frédéric the Education sentimental but is now the main embodiment of Flaubert. So one can say that he is aware of this feminine charm and remembers it by making himself Deslauriers' wife. Gustave Deslauriers skilfully shows us confused by his wife Frédéric, but [she] never goes out of her mind in front of her husband's masculinity.288

286 This is the phrase used by Baudelaire to identify Emma Bovary. See Roger Kempf, "Le double pupitre", in: Les cahiers du Chemin, October 15, 1969, p. 133.

287 Ibid. P. 143. Let us also think of the "engagement rings" by Gustave and Maxime.

288 Except perhaps in an ambiguous passage quoted by Roger Kempf (p. 142); without considering it convincing: "Such a man (says Frédéric von Deslauriers) outweighs all women." (II, 23) Does one have to see Frédéric's unconditional "masculinity" in it or the confession: to be the mistress of such a man, would give me much more pleasure than possessions of any other woman, my sisters? In the Education sentimental Deslauriers wants to own the women whom Frédéric loves. He fails with Madame Arnoux, but succeeds with Rosanette (Frédéric allowed him to try it). There is no doubt that this type of trio pleased Gustave. Unpublished letters from Louis Bouilhet prove that he slept with Louise Colet and that Gustave knew it. Maxime Du Camp also slept with the divorced wife von Pradier, who only loved Gustave, and the latter gave him permission to do so.

Sartre (1971), pp. 1046-1047 / German: Sartre (1977), pp. 414 f.

The intention to create an ensemble of individuals, each with a different combination of skills, which, at least in Flaubert's eyes, represent the prerequisites for social success, led him to conceptualize a group of four adolescents, Frédéric Deslauriers, Martinon and Cisy - five, one counts Hussonet added, who is always treated separately - in the sense that each of its members is related to each other and at the same time separated from them on the basis of a set of similarities and differences that are roughly systematically distributed: Cisy is very rich, of noble origin, has an elegant demeanor (beautiful?), but is not overly intelligent and of little ambition; Deslauriers is intelligent and animated by a strong will for social success, but at the same time poor and no beauty; Martinon is quite rich, quite handsome (at least he brags about it), quite intelligent, and hungry for success; After all, Frédéric has, as the saying goes, everything to be able to go his way successfully: relative wealth, charm and intelligence - only the will to succeed is missing.

The formula developed here may seem mechanical and simplistic, even if it is merely more methodical than the "literary" formula in which the educated commentator tries to grasp the essence or essentials of a person. In any case, however, it fulfills its function, namely the Education of the heart to be presented as the necessary history of a group - understood in a sociological sense, but also, albeit quite freely, in a mathematical sense - whose elements, connected by a quasi-systematic combination, are exposed to a systematic whole of forces of repulsion and attraction emanating from the power field that is, from the field of the constitutive positions of the ruling class.26 Paradoxically, what deprives these people of the abstract pattern of combinations of parameters is precisely the narrowness of the social space in which they are placed: in this finite and closed space that is irrespective of appears to be very similar to that of the crime novels where everyone is trapped on an island, a luxury steamer or a mansion, the probability is very high that the twenty protagonists will meet - for better or for worse - that is, in a necessary adventure, a deductive story all the implications of their respective "formula" and those The rivalry for a woman (between Frédéric and Cisy for Rosanette or between Martinon and Cisy for Cécile) or a position (between Frédéric and Martinon for protection from Monsieur) unfold in a combined formula that anticipates the decisive turning points in their interaction Dambreuse).In fact, each of the protagonists is defined by a kind of generative formula that does not have to be made entirely explicit, even less formalized in order to guide the decisions of the novelist: it functions somewhat like the practical intuition of habitus that is used in everyday experience To anticipate the behavior of familiar people and to understand them in any case. Constructed from this principle, the actions and opinions of persons, as well as their interactions, are organized in a necessary and systematic way both within themselves and in relation to the actions and reactions of the other members of the group. Each of them is in its entirety in each of them Utterances. In his “mixture of business acumen and naivety”, for example, “while maintaining his artistic demeanor,” Arnoux tries to increase his profits, when he, weakened by an illness, turns to religion, to devote himself to trading in religious objects, “in order for to work one's salvation and at the same time to get money "(EdH, Pp. 58, 531). Martinon's "Schifferbart" is a directly understandable sign of all later expressions of his habitus: starting with the paleness, the sighs and the wailing during the little uproar with which he betrays his fear of being compromised, or the cautious resistance he gives his comrades when they attack Louis-Philippe - an attitude that Flaubert himself attributes to the obedience that enabled him to bypass detention during the college and to please the law professors today - right down to the seriousness of his open mindedness conservative remarks and his sedate demeanor during Monsieur Dambreuse's evening parties.

In this Leibnizian universe, each individual behavior of each figure thus specifies the system of differences that set them apart from all other members of the group, without ever adding anything to the original formula. This becomes recognizable in the description, towards the end of the novel, of the adventure with the Turkish woman: Frédéric has money, but no courage; Deslauriers would dare, but he lacks the money. The complementarity of the two figures is so evident that it prompts Sartre to look for the root of his tendency towards doubling as the reason for this "doublet" in the deep structure of the relationship between Gustave and the other, especially his father The story ends with the nostalgic evocation of this kind of primal scene, the later story of which will only be its repetition, because, like the prophecies or dreams in the tragedies, it encoded the entire future of each of the characters and their relationship in itself .

History is always only the time that is required for the formula to unfold: the actions and especially the interactions, the relationships of rivalry and conflict, even the happy and unhappy coincidences that appear to determine the course of biographical history, are for the novelist acting as a divine spectator only has opportunities to manifest the essence of the characters in such a way that he unfolds it over time in the form of a story - in the double sense of the word. It is sufficient to prescribe two principles of variation, inheritance and the heir's attitude towards it, in order to produce the formula with which the generation formula of each of the five members of the group, and these alone, can be generated.28 Inheritance separates the heirs from those who have no other capital than their will to succeed, the petty bourgeoisie, Deslauriers and Hussonet. Among the heirs stand those who refuse to take over their inheritance as opposed to those who accept their inheritance, either that, like Cisy, they are content to keep it, or that, like Martinon, they seek to increase it The latter contrast shows that the future linked to a particular social position presents itself as a distribution of probabilities, as a bundle of careers, the highest, most improbable, the upper limit (e.g. minister, lover of Madame Dambreuse for Frédéric) and the lowest of which marks the lower limit (again for Frédéric: Kanzlist with a provincial notary and married to Mademoiselle Roque) .30 Thus, in the logic of the novel, Cisy has no other reason for existence than one of the possible attitudes towards the inheritance and, more generally, the system of positions to be inherited and that means: to represent the ruling class and its interests towards: He is the heir without history, who deals with the merely His heirs are content, since, bearing in mind the nature of their inheritance, their goods, their titles, but also their intelligence, they have nothing else to do than this, and nothing else to do for them.

Box: The social careers of the five young people

[S. 122 f.] His mind was fired and became more agile and stronger. He locked himself up until August, when he was admitted to his final exam.

Deslauriers, who had had it difficult enough to teach him the material for the second exam again at the end of December and then the third one in February, was very astonished at his enthusiasm. Now the old hopes returned to him too. In ten years Frederic had to be a deputy, in fifteen years a minister; why not? With his inheritance, which he would soon get hold of, he was able to start a newspaper first; that would be the beginning, then one would see. As for himself, he was still aspiring to a chair in the law school; and he defended his doctoral thesis in such a remarkable way that the professors said flattering things about it.

Three days later, Frédéric was a doctor. Before he went on vacation, it occurred to him to end the Saturday gatherings with a picnic.

He was very happy with this one. Madame Arnoux was with her mother in Chartres. But he would meet her again soon and eventually become her lover.

Deslauriers was admitted to the d’Orsay discussion club on the same day and gave a speech to enthusiastic applause. Although he was otherwise very moderate, he got drunk; over dessert he said to Dussardier:

“You are a decent guy! If I'm rich, I'll make you my manager! "

Everyone was happy; Cisy did not want to finish his law studies, Martinon was serving his probationary period in the provinces, where he would be appointed assistant prosecutor; Pellerin was preparing to paint a large picture that was to depict the "genius of the revolution." Hussonnet was supposed to read the draft of a play to the director of the Délassements Theater the following week, and he had no doubt that it would be successful.

[S. 569 f.] At the beginning of this winter, Frédéric and Deslauriers sat chatting in the corner of the fireplace, reconciled from a fateful power that drove them again and again to seek and love one another.

One of them briefly explained his falling out with Madame Dambreuse, who later married an Englishman.

The other told, without going into detail, why he had married Mademoiselle Roque and that one day his wife ran away with a singer. To wash away a little of the ridiculousness, he had made himself unpopular as prefect through excessive government zeal and had been deposed. After that he had been head of colonization in Algiers, secretary to a pasha, editor of a newspaper, advertising agent, and finally became an employee of the legal department of an industrial company.

As for Frédéric, he had consumed two thirds of his fortune and was now living like a petty bourgeois.

Then they asked each other about their friends. Martinon was now a senator. Hussonnet had a high position in which he had all the theaters and the press under himself. Cisy was completely absorbed in religion, he was the father of eight children and lived in the castle of his ancestors.

Pellerin had succumbed to Fourierism, homeopathy, table-backing, Gothic, and painting that made mankind happy, and finally became a photographer; and now he was seen on all the walls of Paris in tails, with a tiny body and a mighty head.

"And your intimate friend Sénécal?" Asked Frédéric. "Disappeared. I don't know anything about him. And you? And your great passion, Madame Arnoux? "

At the end of the first comparative balance sheet of careers, one learns that Cisy “does not want to finish his law studies”. Why also? After spending his youth in Paris, in keeping with tradition, and coming into contact with unorthodox people, heretical ideas and permissive customs, he will soon find the right path that leads him straight into the future, the one in his past is laid out, that is, in the "castle of his ancestors", where, as it should be, he will end up, "entirely in the bosom of religion" and "father of eight children". Cisy, the purest example of a simple reproduction, is in contrast to Frédéric, the heir who rejects the inheritance, as well as to Martinon, who does everything to increase it, who uses a will to win for his inherited capital (goods and relationships, beauty and intelligence) who finds his equals only in the petty bourgeoisie and will secure him the highest objectively prescribed social career. To attribute this result solely to a willpower capable of mobilizing all available means for success, including the most questionable, would mean forgetting that Martinon's determination - like Frédéric's vagueness and indecision as its strict opposite - constitutes an essential part of its effectiveness owes symbolic effects that go hand in hand with every action marked by this sign: The specific modality of the practices in which the attitude to commitment is manifested, the "seriousness", the "conviction", the "enthusiasm" - or, conversely, the "frivolity" The "presumptuousness" and "indolence" - forms the surest evidence of approval of the goals and the recognition of the coveted positions, consequently of submission to the order into which one intends to integrate - which every corpus demands more than anything who have to reproduce it.

27 The relationship between Frédéric and Deslauriers traces the opposition between those who inherit and those who only have the urge to own property, in other words, the opposition between the citizen and the petty bourgeois. 31 One of those inevitable coincidences that control biographies The question of inheritance is the cause of the failure of Deslauriers, which puts an end to his university ambitions: he had reported to the Agrégation "with a thesis on inheritance law, in which he demanded that it be restricted as much as possible", " Then it happened that he drew the statute of limitations as the subject of the oral lecture, "which gave him the opportunity to go even further about inheritance and heirs; Strengthened by his failure with the "pathetic theories" that had given him the end of the test, he preaches the abolition of the possibility of inheritance being passed on to the sidelines, from which he only wants Frédéric to be excluded ... (EdH, P. 152 ff.).

28But the sovereign ease and ease of the renowned heir, who can squander his inheritance or allow himself the luxury of doing without it, is not enough to reduce the distance32: This tacit condemnation of anxious and cramped ascension must inevitably lead to the fact that the shame-filled hatred was joined by an unacknowledged envy. Deslaurier's reflections at the moment when he tried to make the two "chances" of Frédérics, Monsieur Dambreuse and Madame Arnoux, his own, in identifying with him to take his place, express in parabolic form the entire content of the specific alienation of the petty bourgeoisie, that desperate hope of being someone else: "If I were Frédéric!": That is the formula that generates the interactions between the two figures.33 Deslauriers' tendency to identify with Frédéric, to make his thing his own, "to get out of strange thought processes, in which at the same time revenge and sympathy, imitation and boldness were "almost to imagine that he was Frédéric (EdH, P. 332), does not die without a heightened awareness of what separates him from Frédéric flair for the social distance that forces him to keep his distance, even in his imagination. Aware that what is good for one is by no means good for the other too, he stays in his place where he takes the place of someone else: “In ten years Frédéric had to be a deputy to be minister in fifteen years; why not? With his inheritance, which he would soon get hold of, he was able to start a newspaper first; that would be the beginning; after that one would see. As for himself, he was still aspiring to a chair in the law school "(EdH, P. 122). If he ties his ambitions to the Frédérics, it is always in order to subordinate his realistic and limited plans to those of his friend: “You have to move around in this society! Then you will take me there later «(EdH, P. 30). He develops ambition For Frédéric; but that means that he does not have his very own ambitions subordinated but those whom he would feel entitled to experience, he would only have the means Frédéric has at his disposal. “One thought occurred to him: to go to Dambreuse and ask for the position of secretary. But certainly one would not get this position without acquiring a number of shares. He realized that Crazy of his intention and said to himself: 'No, that would be bad!' Now he was looking for a way of getting the fifteen thousand francs back. Such a sum meant for Frédéric Yes Nothingbut what a lever it would be in his hand if he had her!« (EdH, P. 331; Emphasis placed on P. B.).

The desperate hope of being someone else is easily reversed into the hopelessness of success, and vicarious ambition ends in moral indignation: Frédéric, with what he has, should now have the ambitions that Deslauriers has for him; or Deslauriers, with what he is, should have the resources that Frédéric has at his disposal. As Flaubert goes on to say: “And the former lawyer clerk was outraged by how great the other's fortune was: 'He's making pitiful use of it! He is an egoist! Well, I don't give a damn about his fifteen thousand francs!EdH, P. 331). We come to the origin of the Dialectic of resentmentthat condemns the possession of what one desires in the other: “But why had he loaned it? For the sake of Madame Arnoux's beautiful eyes! She was his lover, Deslauriers did not doubt it. ›That's another thing that you don't have the money to do!‹ Hateful Thoughts arose in him. ”When it comes to the nameless, envied and rejected“ thing ”, resentment borders on hatred. “Then he thought of Frédéric himself; there was always an almost feminine character to him Charm exercised. And he was soon ready to use it for the sake of success admire, whose he himself as completely incapable recognized« (EdH, P. 332).

This is the resentment of the petty bourgeoisie, that unhappy passion for inaccessible possessions, that extorted admiration that inevitably turns into hatred of the other; he alone is able to protect against self-hatred, especially when the desire arises incorporated Characteristics such as appearance and manners that one cannot adopt without being able to kill off the corresponding desire for it in oneself: which is why the indignant condemnation of the »diamond«, which is today among the pedants and » School foxes ”, as Flaubert would have said, is all too often only the reverse form of a desire, which is merely one of the dominant values Absence able to oppose the incriminated value defined anti-value, namely "seriousness", "seriousness". Of course, resentment is not the only way out. It unfolds in alternation with voluntarism, whose passive or, if you will, overcome form it represents: “But isn't willpower the most essential thing in all undertakings? And since one triumphs everywhere through them ... «(EdH, P. 331 f.).What Frédéric could have if he only wanted, Deslauriers wants to achieve through willpower, even if he has to take Frédéric's place for it.

31This typically petty-bourgeois outlook, in which social success depends on the strength of will and the good will of each individual, this cramped ethic of effort and success, the other side of which is resentment, finds its logical continuation in a view of the social world in which the omnipotent thinking of the feasibility of everything social is combined with a cryptocratic obsession of partly optimistic - persistence and intrigue can do anything - partly desperate character. The secret drives of this mechanism are conspiracy left alone to the initiated. »Since he's the big world only through the fever of his desires had seen, he imagined it as a artificially created structurein which everything happens according to mathematical laws. An invitation to dinner, a meeting with a man in a high position, or the smile of a pretty woman could trigger a series of events, one of which led to the other, and which had monstrous results. Certain Paris salons were like that for him machinerythat take up the processing material in its raw state and give it back a hundredfold in value. He believed in courtesans, imagined them as advisers to diplomats, in the making of rich marriages through intrigue, in the genius of galley convicts, and in the docility of chance in the hands of the strong "(EdH, P. 111 f .; Emphasis placed on P. B.). This is what the world of power looks like from the outside and, above all, from afar and from below, from the point of view of whoever wants to enter it: In politics as elsewhere, the petty bourgeoisie is Allodoxia condemned to that error of perception and assessment which consists in doing something for something completely different to recognize.34

32 Resentment is a revolt out of submission. The disappointment, through the ambition it reveals, represents an admission of defeat and recognition, an admission of failure with regard to criteria which compel a final defeat to be recognized. Conservatism has never been mistaken in this; He recognized it as the most impressive appreciation of a social order that produces no other revolt than that of annoyance, depression, in short: frustrated ambition. However intelligent enough he was, more truthful than a youth revolt in the criss-cross kinked track to uncover: From the rebellious bohemian of youth to the disillusioned, illusion-free conservatism or reactionary fanaticism of the ripe old age. Hussonnet, who started a literary career very early on, made his way through the years as a »man of letters«, who wrote vaudevilles »that were not performed« and wrote »couplets«, condemned the material shortage of the bohemians and To the failed artist's intellectual disappointments, “Hussonet wasn't funny. Since he had to write about every kind of object every day, read a lot of newspapers, overhear many conversations and say paradoxes forever in order to amaze, he had finally become blind himself from his poor fireworks and had lost all real sense of reality. The worries of a life that was once so easy, but now so difficult, kept him in a ceaseless excitement. And his inability, which he refused to admit, made him snappy and sarcastic. When in the course of the conversation there was talk of ›Ozai‹, a new ballet, he became abusive against dance and, when people moved from dance to opera, towards opera; then on the occasion of the opera against the fact that the Italians would now have been replaced by a troop of Spanish actors, 'as if you weren't already thoroughly fed up with Castile!'EdH, P. 285).