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GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is referred to as the “second generation” (2G) mobile radio standard because, in contrast to the first generation of cell phones, data is transmitted digitally rather than analog.
The standard was developed in Europe from 1982 to 1990 (first within the CEPT, then at ETSI). The standard was completed by ETSI in cooperation with European industry and network operators. The GSM system was originally designed for voice telephony. The increasing demand for new, faster data services was soon recognized and the GSM standard was expanded with new functionalities such as HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data), GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution). These services allow higher data rates and form the basis for new, innovative data services. Even today, the standardization of GSM technology is constantly being further developed and meanwhile offers data rates similar to those of the third generation of mobile radio systems. GSM is used worldwide (approx. 220 countries and over 860 networks). The technical specifications are developed at 3GPP in the groups RAN 5 (mobile terminal conformance testing) and RAN 6 (legacy RAN radio and protocol).
The digital mobile radio system "Global System of Mobile Communication-Rail", GSM-R for short, describes a digital radio system which was specially developed for the railways. The frequencies of GSM-R are harmonized across Europe. The GSM-R technology covers all mobile voice and data services for train communication. With this, GSM-R creates an important prerequisite for optimizing the operational processes of the railways and simplifying cross-border traffic. In addition, the uniform and standardized communication also increases safety in rail transport. The GSM-R standard also fulfills the requirements for the driver's cab signaling ETCS (European Train Control System), whereby GSM-R transmits the signal and route data directly to the driver's cab. This enables an increase in the efficiency of the overall system and also simplifies cross-border traffic. GSM-R is standardized within ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) in the TC RT (Technical Committee Railways Telecommunications). Efforts are now underway to further develop rail radio at 3GPP.
Cellular services on board ships
Within the European Community, technical and regulatory framework conditions for the operation of mobile communications services on board ships have been developed (2010/166 / EU, Commission Decision of March 19, 2010 on harmonized frequency usage conditions for the operation of mobile communications services on board ships (MCV services ) in the European Union). The purpose of this decision is to harmonize the technical conditions for the availability and efficient use of the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequency bands for systems that provide mobile communications services on board ships in the territorial seas in the European Union. Furthermore, radio interference in land-based electronic mobile radio services should be avoided by MCV services. Article 2 of this Decree clarifies that this Decree applies to public communications networks using a GSM system that communicate without making direct connections to land-based cellular networks.
Cellular services on board aircraft
Within the European Community, technical and regulatory framework conditions for the operation of mobile communications services on board aircraft have been developed (2008/294 / EC, Commission decision of April 7, 2008 on harmonized frequency usage conditions for the operation of mobile communications services on board aircraft (MCA services ) in the European Community). The purpose of this decision is to standardize the technical conditions for the availability and efficient use of radio frequencies for mobile communications services on board aircraft in the Community. According to the ETSI standards EN 301 502 and EN 301 511, commercial operation of MCA services is currently only available for GSM systems in the frequency band 1710-1785 MHz for the uplink (terminal sends to the base station) and in the frequency band 1805-1880 MHz for the Downlink (base station sends to end device) into consideration. In the future, however, other terrestrial public mobile radio systems could come into question that work according to other standards or in other frequency bands.
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