Is instrumentation technology or production technology better
University of Music and Performing Arts Graz Master's thesis producer / conductor an aesthetic view of a musical professional field
1 University of Music and Performing Arts Graz Master's thesis producer / conductor an aesthetic view of a musical professional field Written by Florian Wenz At the Institute for Music Aesthetics At Ao.Univ.Prof. Mag.phil. Dr phil Harald Haslmayr Date of submission: October 2014
2 INTRODUCTION ... 3 AESTHETICS / AESTHETIC SOUND TECHNICAL FIELD ... 4 DEFINITION ... 4 CONDUCTOR ... 4 PRODUCER ... 5 WORK AREA CONDUCTOR ... 7 WORK AREA PRODUCER ... 7 TRIAL WORK ... 8 ORGANIZATIONAL. .. 8 MUSIC RECORDING ... 8 DIFFERENT WORKING METHODS BY PRODUCERS RICK RUBIN Johnny Cash Cooperation Cash / Rubin Summary Working method of Rick Rubin GEORGE MARTIN The Beatles George Martin with the Beatles George Martin A Day in the Life Summary Working method George Martin EDDIE KRAMER Jimi Hendrix Eddie Kramer Bold As Love Summary Working method Eddie Kramer PHIL SPECTOR George Harrisson Wall of Sound and collaboration with George Harrisson THE PRODUCER IN CLASSICAL MUSIC WORKING METHODS PRODUCERS DIFFERENT WORKING METHODS CONDUCTOR HERBERT VON KARAJAN Conducting style
3 LEOPOLD ANTHONY STOKOWSKI Conducting style PIERRE BOULEZ Conducting style NIKOLAUS HARNONCOURT Conducting style WORKING METHOD CONDUCTORS: COMPARISON WORK AREA CLOSING WORDS LIST OF REFERENCES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES
4 Introduction After all my years in the industry I finally know what it s like to work with a great producer. Thank you Rick. 1 This sentence is in the booklet of album 13, the current album of the rock band Black Sabbath and comes from their singer Ozzy Osbourne. With Rick the producer Rick Rubin is meant. So if you are only looking for the highlights, there is nothing wrong with that, turn to Herbert von Karajan and his Berliner Philharmoniker. Because these three suites cannot be reproduced more colorful, brighter, more refined and seductive than the sound sensualist Karajan conjured up here. 2 This quote comes from a review by the classic & jazz magazine Rondo. The ballet suites Sleeping Beauty, Swan Lake and the Nutcracker by Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky were discussed by the Berlin Philharmonic under the direction of Herbert von Karajan. Reading today's music reviews often gives the impression that it is not the artist / performer or the band / orchestra that is in the foreground or that is responsible for the quality and success of the musical product, but rather the producer / conductor. Even when promoting those recordings, concerts or festivals, it often seems to be irrelevant what is being played by whom. Rather, it seems to be more effective which conductor and which producer are involved. What influence conductors and producers really have on the musical-aesthetic product is to be discussed here in this master's thesis. The author differentiates between conductors of classical music and producers of popular music. In order to be able to compare these two job profiles, the author looks at them from an aesthetic-sound-technical perspective. The overarching term that connects both professions is sound. How do these professional groups get their sound, or what sound ideas they have, I would like to discuss in this work. Of course I can't for all conductors and 1 Black Sabbath, 13 (Mercury Universal, 2013). 2 RONDO - Das Klassik & Jazz Magazin // Reviews, accessed September 23, 2014, 3
5 conductors and producers speak. That is why I present four producers and four conductors as examples in this work. Aesthetics / Aesthetic-sound technical field of view The subject of musical aesthetics is music in the context of philosophical theories of beauty and art, of sensual knowledge and historical understanding; In this context, music is not researched and described as a given reality, but rather its principles and criteria are questioned. 3 The basis of the author of this work, which makes it possible to look at so different fields of work in so different music genres, is sound aesthetics. Both the producers to be discussed and the conductors have a certain sound aesthetic, which has developed through the respective sound and sound ideas. In terms of musical aesthetics, I question the principles and criteria of the respective sound ideas. Definition In this section I outline the terms conductor and producer with two definitions. In the further course of the work, a clear picture of the two terms will solidify. Conductor The Große Metzler Musiklexikon defines conductor in the following way: The conductor coordinates and leads an ensemble (orchestra, choir) with hand movements, with which he indicates the tempo, the beat and the rhythmic accents to the performers by means of an even beat, and communicates this In addition, the musicians can express their artistic intentions through certain gestures and through explanatory agreements in rehearsals. The right hand beats the beat in the conductors' figures, which can be graphically represented as follows: When works of older music are performed, the interaction is coordinated. 3 Friedrich Blume and Ludwig Finscher, eds. 21 volumes in two parts, 2., revised. Edition, vol. 6, 21 vol., Subject part (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1997). S.
6 usually not by a conductor, but, based on the practices of earlier times, by a soloist (e.g. from the harpsichord) or the concert master. A conductor is superfluous for smaller ensembles with chamber music. Here one of the interpreters coordinates from his seat at more difficult points or at inserts and finals (e.g. in the string quartet of the 1st violinist). 4 The first sentence is important here. He coordinates and directs an ensemble and communicates his artistic intentions to the musicians. According to the Metzler Musiklexikon, the work areas of a conductor are based on both the organizational and the artistic. Producer Peter Wicke describes the term producer in his Handbook of Popular Music in the following way: Producer [engl. Producer]: in the studio the director responsible for the realization of a musical production; His field of activity includes technical, organizational and artistic aspects that make him a mediator between the artistic ideas of the musicians and their technical implementation by the recording technicians. He organizes and monitors the entire process of a production, from the scheduling of who has to be in the studio when, whether, when and which studio musicians are also needed, through the actual recording process, for the artistic result of which he is responsible, to the final mixing [ ] the recording. Its function is an expression of the increasingly collective character of music production and its growing dependence on the interplay of musical, technical, economic and organizational factors, which is the responsibility of the producer to realize. The importance of this function for the overall musical result has increased enormously in the last few decades with the ever-increasing artistic use of the studio's technical possibilities. Even the best musician can no longer implement his creativity without a good producer. Award-winning producers now enjoy a status similar to that of the musicians themselves. The modern producer type is mainly shaped by Phil Spector (born 1940) 4 Das Großes Metzler Musiklexikon 3.0, Version 3.0 (United Soft Media Verlag GmbH, 2007). 5
7, who began to use the studio's specific tonal possibilities with extraordinary success at the beginning of the sixties. Later it was above all George Martin (born 1926) as producer of the Beatles, Felix Pappalardi (born 1940) as producer of Cream, Quincy Jones (born 1933) as one of the most successful representatives of his profession, including productions for Little Richard , Aretha Franklin, Herbie Hancock and Michael Jackson; and finally Brian Eno (born 1948), Trevor Horn (born 1948) and Arthur Baker (born 1955), who made a name for themselves as producers along with a host of others. The extraordinary importance of this function in the music production process has led many rock groups to start producing their recordings under their own direction. Nevertheless, the activity of the producer, whether performed by a participating musician or a specialized expert, remains an indispensable integration function in music production. This has repeatedly led to the formation of permanent teams of producers and authors, as this way the ever closer connection between title concept and studio implementation can be optimally implemented. Reference is only made to the trio Brian Holland (born 1941), Lamont Dozier (born 1941) and Eddie Holland (born 1939), who shaped the Motown sound with their work in the sixties, Nicky Chinn ( born 1945) and Mike Chapman (born 1947), who worked extremely successfully in the 1970s for Mud, Sweet and Suzi Quatro, among others, and, as a more recent example, the British pop music master Mike Stock (born 1951), Matt Aitken (born 1956) and Pete Waterman (born 1947) . 5 Here one can see the very broad and also vague field of work of a producer. According to Wicke, a producer is responsible for the organizational as well as the musical one. He can take on the tasks of various fields of work (e.g. sound engineer, mixer, composer, arranger) in a production, but does not have to. 5 Peter Wicke, Kai-Erik Ziegenrücker, and Wieland Ziegenrücker, Handbook of Popular Music: History - Styles - Practice - Industry, fundamentally revised. and exp. A. (Schott Music, Mainz, 2006). 6th
8 Conductor's field of work In the following I would like to outline a conductor's field of work. The rehearsal with the orchestra takes up most of the time. Colin Lawson writes on this: As a conductor s principal task is to rehearse the music for performance, knowledge of the forces involved, the style, structure, and main features of the piece are vital in planning the various practical tasks that make up the rehearsal. 6 The aim of the trial work is of course to perform the work at a concert. Here the work differs from that of a producer. At a concert, as part of the orchestra, the conductor is in a sense also a musician. In addition to the rehearsal and the concert, the conductor naturally also works in a recording studio to record the works. While these three areas mentioned are still very close to music, bureaucratic and organizational matters also belong to a conductor's area of responsibility. Rehearsal rooms, rehearsal dates, orchestral musicians and so on have to be organized and planned. Social aspects also fall into the field of responsibility of a conductor. So he has to pay attention to a homogeneous composition of the orchestra and also ensure a good atmosphere at the rehearsals and concerts in order to get the best out of the respective musicians. Working field producer In this chapter I would like to explain the working field and the methods of the producer. Of course, I cannot explain the working methods of all producers, so after an introductory general overview of the work of the producer, I will also go into the working methods of individual producers in more detail. In the following I would like to describe the typical work steps of a producer in the course of a music production: 6 Colin Lawson, The Cambridge Companion to the Orchestra (Cambridge University Press, 2003). 7th
9 Trial work Before a band goes to a recording studio to record, they usually practice the pieces to be recorded in a rehearsal room. Nowadays CD recordings are often no longer fully financed by the record company, which means that you can finish the recordings in the recording studio in as short a time as possible to save costs. This in turn means that the bands should prepare as well as possible in the rehearsal room. The producer often joins the band at this stage to get a first impression of the band. He can give the band valuable tips for the upcoming work in the recording studio in order to save studio time and costs. These tips can be organizational, musical or purely technical. Organizational matters Before a band goes to a recording studio, the producer takes care of which recording studio they visit. That means he books the recording studio, organizes further sound technicians, takes care of the equipment, books further studio musicians and so on. Music recording The role of the producer in music recording is multi-dimensional and can, but need not, cover different areas. In the following I will outline some of them as examples: Technical: The technical role of the producer corresponds to the role of a sound engineer. Here the producer has to mike the instruments in order to record them. Here the producer operates the mixer and all other technical devices. After the recording, the producer cuts and mixes the different audio tracks in order to finally mix them into a stereo track. In this case, the producer takes care of everything personally, from recording the individual instruments to the final mixdown and mastering. Musically: Often bands do not come into the studio with completely pre-arranged songs, but with song sketches. In this case it is often the job of the producer to help arrange and compose the songs. 8th
10 Social: The social role of a producer should not be underestimated either. Producers often act as mediators in disputes between musicians. Especially with the producer Rick Rubin, I will explain how he is concerned with the well-being of the artist. Albin describes these steps in his book THE POETICS OF ROCK Cutting Tracks, Making Records as follows: In general, the tasks involved in record making are songwriting, arranging, performing, engineering, and producing. 7 Finally, I would like to use a graphic to illustrate the usual steps involved in recording in a recording studio. These are described on the homepage of the American recording studio Fountainsquarehouse: 8 Figure 1-12 Step Recording Process Here, technical, musical and social tasks play a role. 7 Albin Zak III, The Poetics of Rock: Cutting Tracks, Making Records (Univ of California Pr, 2001) .p The Recording Process Explained- Fountain Sqaure House Recording, June 19, 2014, 9
11 Different working methods of producers In the following I would like to introduce four producers and their different work with the respective artists. In addition to a biographical overview of the respective producer and artist, I will go into more detail about the respective collaboration and production style. Rick Rubin Figure 2 - Rick Rubin 9 9 img-rick-rubin-2_ jpg (JPEG graphic, pixels) - scaled (0%), accessed 23 September 2014, 10
12 Rick Rubin is considered to be one of the most successful producers today. Born on March 13, 1963, he founded the hip hop label Def Jam in 1984 at the age of 21. In the following this label was considered to be the most influential hip hop label at that time. The first artists Rick Rubin signed were LL Cool J, the Beastie Boys, Run DMC and Public Enemy. Rick Rubin's commercial breakthrough came with the production of the album License to Kill by the Beastie Boys in Though the label was more oriented towards hip hop, the trash metal album Reign in Blood by the band Slayer was released there in 1986. (From around 1985, trash metal was described as a style of metal that was faster and did without stage costumes and other show props. The term speed metal is often used instead of trash metal. 10) In 1989, Rick Rubin founded his own label Def American, which later renamed American Recordings. Since then, Rick Rubin has produced many artists from a wide variety of music genres. The best known include the productions of AC / DC, Red Hot Chilli Peppers, Metallica, System of a Down, Audioslave, Weezer, Shakira, Dixie Chicks and Neil Diamond. Another great success is his collaboration with Johnny Cash, which he made a highly regarded comeback possible. 11 I would now like to take a closer look at the collaboration between Rick Rubin and Johnny Cash as an example: Johnny Cash Johnny Cash (born February 26, 1932 in Kingsland, Arizona; died September 12, 2003 in Nashville, Tennessee) was an American country singer and songwriter and a formative figure in country music during his nearly 50-year career. He recorded over 1,500 songs, most of them about rural life in the American South and working class conditions. With his distinctive bass-baritone voice, he also sang gospel, folk, rockabilly, rock, blues and bluegrass. He sold more than fifty million albums, won more than a dozen Grammys, had 14 number one hits in country 10 Ian Christe, Hell's Noise: The Complete, Relentless, Unique History of Heavy Metal, 1st, ed. (Hannibal Verlag, 2013), cf. Siegfried Schmidt-Joos and Wolf Kampmann, Das neue Rowohlt Rock-Lexikon (United Soft Media Verlag GmbH, 2010). Article: Rick Rubin 11
13 area. He was also honored to be inducted into the Rock and Roll, Country Music and Songwriters Hall of Fame. He is best known for his Man in Black -Alter Ego, which he created as the voice of the poor and disenfranchised for his song and album of the same name.Cash had seven siblings and his father was a tenant farmer working cotton plantations in Dyess, Arkansas. He later incorporated the work in the fields with his family in his songs. During his four years as a radio operator with the Air Force in Germany, Cash played in a band with comrades. When he returned in 1954, he moved to Memphis and went into the music business; first he recorded with producer Sam Phillips at the Sun Studio. Cash first became known as one of Phillips' rockabilly stars, including Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins and Jerry Lee Lewis, the Million Dollar Quartet. His best-known hits on Sun Records () include Folsom Prison Blues (1955) and I Walk the Line (1956). Cash went to Columbia () to record gospel and concept albums, and hit singles include Ring of Fire (1963) and A Boy Named Sue (1969). In the 1960s, he released four concept albums on American history, neared the folk revival, and recorded two live albums in prisons, which earned him international acclaim. Johnny Cash at Folsom Prison (1968) and Johnny Cash at San Quentin (1969) climbed to number one on the Billboard Country Charts, and the latter album also hit number one on the pop charts. Cash's music became the best-selling in 1969, surpassing the Beatles with 6.5 million albums sold. In concept albums such as Blood, Sweat and Tears (1963) and Bitter Tears: Ballads of the American Indian (1964), Cash addressed issues such as social justice and Native American rights; the latter includes his hit The Ballad of Ira Hayes. He became a superstar in the early 1970s. He hosted his own television show, The Johnny Cash Show (), which featured a variety of artists including Waylon Jennings, the Carter Family, the Statler Brothers, Ray Charles, Stevie Wonder, Bob Dylan, Neil Young and Joni Mitchell. Cash also worked with Bob Dylan on the 1969 Nashville Skyline album, a pioneering country rock album. In the 1980s, his popularity as a solo artist waned. The Columbia label fired him, and he joined Mercury (). During the 1980s and 1990s he formed the supergroup The Highwaymen with Willie Nelson, Waylon Jennings and Kris Kristofferson. It was only when producer Rick Rubin turned 12 in 1993
14 American Recordings label, his solo career got rolling again. He recorded four critically acclaimed albums with Rick Rubin before his death in 2003, and recorded enough material for more posthumously released albums. The song Hurt and the accompanying video in particular received rave reviews. Cash has been hailed by a whole new generation, interest in him rising in the 1990s with the growing popularity of alternative country and Americana roots music. The Oscar-winning biographical film Walk the Line (20th Century Fox, 2005) once again attracted a lot of attention and promoted his second autobiography Cash: The Autobiography (1997) to the bestseller list, which started the Broadway musical Ring of Fire: The Johnny Cash Musical Show. His daughter Rosanne Cash was also able to establish herself as a successful singer and songwriter. 12 Cooperation Cash / Rubin Figure 3 - Rick Rubin with Johnny Cash in the studio See: Cash, Johnny in Oxford Music Online, accessed 23 September 2014, e / music / a? Q = johnny + cash & search = quick & pos = 1 & _start = 1 # first hit. 13 Rubin-JC.2.jpg (JPEG graphic, pixels) - scaled (0%), accessed 23 September 2014, 13
15 The collaboration between Rick Rubin and Johnny Cash began in 1994 with the recording of the album American Recordings and ended with the death of Johnny Cash in. With the collaboration with Rick Rubin, Johnny Cash made a highly regarded and financially and artistically rewarding comeback . The sound differs significantly from earlier recordings by Cash s.Rick Rubin detoxified the sound and reduced the use of any effects to a minimum. He put Johnny Cash in the center, practically naked and ruthless. For most of the songs in American Recordings, only Johnny Cash plays guitar and sings. The singing sounds incredibly direct and is not overlaid by a lot of reverb or similar effects. The result is a very intimate and direct sound impression. Cash's voice seems to jump straight to the listener, with all its abundance and vulnerability. The rawness and directness of the recording makes it possible to perceive every nuance in Cash's voice. You can hear every panting, breathing and throat clearing. Rick Rubin also plays an important role in the selection of songs for the albums, which contributed to the consistency of the albums and ultimately to their great success. Many songs are cover versions. But Rick Rubin managed to perfectly capture the mental state of Cash at that time with the selection of the cover versions. Often the listener does not even notice that many songs are cover versions. The actual interpreters of the songs also speak full of praise for Cash. As an example, I cite a newspaper report at this point, which deals with the cover version of the Nine Inch Nails song Hurt: Nine Inch Nails Trent Reznor has revealed that hearing Johnny Cash s cover of his song Hurt for the first time felt "like someone kissing [his] girlfriend ". Reznor added that the 2002 cover matters much more to him than industry accolades like the Grammys. Speaking to The Sun's Something For The Weekend, the frontman said: [Producer Rick Rubin] called me to ask how I d feel if Johnny Cash covered 'Hurt'. I said I d be very flattered but was given no indication it would actually be recorded. Two weeks went by. Then I got a CD in the post. I listened to it and it was very strange. It was this other person inhabiting my most personal song. Hearing it was like someone kissing your girlfriend. It felt invasive. Reznor also hailed Cash s cover as a great honor, saying: Having Johnny Cash, one of the greatest singer-songwriters of all time, want to cover your song, that's something that matters to me. It s not so much what 14
16 other people think but the honor that this guy felt it was worthy of interpreting. He said afterwards it was a song that sounds like one he would have written in the 60s and that's wonderful. 14 It is interesting how Rick Rubin tries to create a relaxed, good atmosphere while recording, but still doesn’t let his idea of sound out of sight: towards the end of the recordings for the American Recordings, Johnny Cash was already in very poor health. Rick Rubin made sure that from now on the recordings could be done at Johnny Cash's home. He also called Cash's best musician friends to his home to record with him so that Cash is surrounded by musicians he knows and with whom he is comfortable. The real plan with these recordings was as follows: Rick Rubin never wanted to use these musicians for the recordings, he only wanted the recordings of Cash himself. After the recordings were finished, Rubin took the vocals and guitar tracks from Cash and then let them in afterwards play his specially selected band in another studio. In an interview with Sound on Sound Magazin, sound engineer David R. Fergusion speaks about these recordings as follows: Another surprising aspect of the recordings for American V and VI is that, other than Cash s voice, very little of the Nashville recordings made it onto the final masters. Ferguson: The whole point of the Nashville recordings was to get Johnny s vocals, the key and the tempo. Rick likes to be hands-on with the tracks, so we later took the recordings to Los Angeles where Rick put on his own band. We changed the grooves of almost all the songs so dramatically that it did not work to use any of the original material. The Nashville process was to focus on recording Johnny singing with musicians he loved, and a few instrumental bits remain on the final albums, like Pat McLaughlin s guitar and Jack Clement s slide guitar on Aloha Oe: the original playing was really intimate, and you don t take Jack Clement s playing off anything! In Los Angeles we added a few things to the original instrumental tracks on that song Trent Reznor: Johnny Cash cover felt like someone kissing your girlfriend, NME.COM, accessed June 5, 2014, 15 J. Paul Tingen, Inside Track Secrets Of The Mix Engineers: David R Ferguson, No. June 2010 (2010): 7-15
17 Summary Rick Rubin's working method Rick Rubin is neither a trained sound engineer, nor a musician or arranger. He often sees himself simply as a fan of the music or the musician. He also often takes this position as a producer. He has very good ears and a feeling for the sound and that certain something a song needs. He also knows how to create a perfect environment for the artist so that he can get his best performance. Through his work as the label boss, he also has a very good overview of the entire music market and thus has a lot more far-reaching contacts and networks than other producers. George Martin Figure 4 - George Martin george_martin.jpg (JPEG graphic, pixels) - scaled (0%), accessed 23 September 2014, 16
18 Due to his close collaboration with the Beatles and the resulting success, George Martin is often referred to as the fifth Beatle. But he also worked with other very successful artists such as Jeff Beck, Cheap Trick, Stan Getz, Elton John, Mahavishnu Orchestra, Aerosmith and many more successfully together. George Martin was born in London on January 3rd, 1926. He received his classical music lessons from the Guildhall School of Music. His career in music business began in 1950 as an artist support assistant at Parlaphone Records, EMI's record company. In the beginning he produced both classical recordings, especially baroque music, as well as comedians like Peter Sellers. He became head of Paralphone Records. However, success with the record company only began in 1962, when George Martin discovered the Beatles. These were contractually bound by him to the EMI group, although the band had previously been rejected by two other producers of EMI. Typical of George Martin's work were his classically inspired orchestral arrangements, which were intended to refine the songs of the Beatles and other artists. This sensitivity in arranging and orchestration and the courage and willingness to experiment in George Martin's environment at the time raised popular music to a higher level. He opened what was then the most modern recording studio in Europe at London's Oxford Circus. These were equipped with 16-track machines, Moog synthesizers and many other technical gimmicks. Together with the sound engineer Geoffrey Emerick, who was also involved in the recording sessions of the Sgt. Pepper s album, he produced the LP Apocalypse with the group Mahavishnu Orchestra and the London Symphony Orchestra. Other artists he supervised in this studio were, among others, Jeff Beck, Neil Sedaka, Ella Fitzgerald, the groups Stackridge, Ultravox, Seatrain, America and Cheap Trick he produced again together with Paul McCartney whose album Tug of War he produced again the album In My Life, a collection of his favorite Beatles songs, sung by stars like Celine Dion, Goldie Hawn, Sean Connery and Phil Collins. At the age of 72, he retired from producing and retired See: Eric Olsen, The Encyclopedia of Record Producers: An Indispensible Guide to the Most Important Record Producers in Music History (Billboard Books, U.S., 1998),
19 The Beatles The musicians John Lennon (vocals, guitar), Paul McCartney (vocals, bass guitar), George Harrison (guitar, vocals) and Pete Best (drums) performed for the first time under the name The Beatles on December 27, 1960 in Litherland , a suburb of Liverpool. In 1962, Ringo Starr took on the role of drummer. A year before that, in 1961, Brian Epstein became the manager of the Beatles and gave the band a record deal with the London-based music company EMI. George Martin also worked there, who at the time was more specialized in classical music, but was then employed as the Beatles' sound supervisor. The first Beatles single Love Me Do was released on October 4th 1962 and climbed to 17th place on the English charts. The later singles Please, Please Me, From Me To You, She Loves You and I Want To Hold Your Hand were even more successful, reaching the top of the charts at the time. The latter single, I Want to Hold Your Hand, paved the group's success in the USA, which was also increased by the appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show on American television in February 1962. The recording of the album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in 1967 marked an important turning point in both the band's history and the development of popular music for many reasons. The production time of four months was already extraordinarily long and the production costs of dollars were extremely high by the standards of the time. The high costs were due on the one hand to the long production time, because booking studio time is expensive, and on the other hand to the Beatles' extravagant wishes for a symphony orchestra for their songs. The death of their manager Brian Epstein on August 27, 1967 was perhaps the beginning of an ominous development that would later end in the dissolution. With Epstein's death, the Beatles decided to market themselves and founded Apple Corps Ltd. an entertainment group, which, however, only made losses due to clumsy management. The following albums, The Beatles (1968), Abbey Road (1969), and Let it Be (1970), only reminded of the creative and successful early days of the Beatles with individual songs. The Streiterrein within the band was also noticeable on these albums, as they no longer composed together and from the collective The Beatles a band from 18
20 had become four individualists or solo artists. The band members' urge to pursue their own solo projects was followed by the official separation on April 11th. George Martin with the Beatles Figure 5 - George Martin in the studio with the Beatles 19 During this era, before the arrival of the Beatles and also for a short time afterwards, the task existed of a record producer mainly in the organization. Of course, he was allowed to make decisions about the material to be recorded and instruct the artists so that they can optimally present themselves during a recording. But it wasn't until the beginning of the stereo age that the producer was given freedom to develop. He finally slipped into a role appropriate to his job, that of an independent and creative person. Thus it was finally possible to give the recordings a trademark, to convey an individual point of view and a certain sound impression.Cf .: Siegfried Schmidt-Joos, Rock-Lexikon 1 (Reinbek bei Hamburg: rororo, 2008), geroge-martin.jpg ( JPEG graphics, pixels) - Scaled (0%), accessed September 23, 2014, 20 George Martin, Jeremy Hornsby, and Alan Tepper, It began in Abbey Road: the ingenious producer of the Beatles tells (Höfen: Hannibal-Verl. , 2013). S.
21 When working with the Beatles, George Martin mainly took on organizational tasks. He also contributed to the Beatles' compositions as an arranger (especially when classical instruments were required). The sound engineer Geoff Emerick was responsible for the recording itself, the sound and the mixing. George Martin A Day in the Life The song A Day in the Life comes from the Beatles album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, which was released on May 26, 1967 in Great Britain. It was recorded at Abbey Road Studios in London. This studio is arguably one of the most famous in the world and is named after the street in which it is located. The buildings in which the studios are located were bought by EMI, the Beatles' record company, in 1929. Back then, the studio was known for its classical recordings. The sound engineers there, as well as the producer George Martin, were all employed by EMI. There were also strict rules on how microphones etc. had to be positioned. With the Beatles recordings, however, these were often circumvented in the ignorance of the EMI managers by the sound engineers and George Martin in order to achieve better sound results and to realize the often crazy sound ideas of the Beatles Standard techniques have gone down in the history of sound engineering. The text probably reflects the band's experience with the drug LSD. It deals with the topics of perception and reality. So the song is in tradition like earlier songs like Strawberry Fields Forever or Penny Lane. John Lennon wrote the verse inspired by a January 17 report in the Daily Mail. It deals with the death of Tara Browne, a young millionaire friend of the Beatles and other English bands. He had a fatal car accident on December 18, 1966. This is what John Lennon refers to in the opening lines of A Day in the Life 22. The song can be seen as a fusion of two different songs. The basic idea comes from John Lennon. 21 Cf .: Geoff Emerick, You make the Beatles !: How I reinvented the band's sound (Munich: Blanvalet Taschenbuch Verlag, 2007). 22 See: Ian MacDonald, The Beatles: Das Song-Lexikon, edition: 2nd A. (Kassel; Basel; London; New York; Prague: Bärenreiter, 2003),
22 Since the song was still missing that certain something, the decision was made to simply leave 24 bars free for the recordings and then fill them up during the recording process. At that time, when studio costs were very expensive, this way of working was very daring, because usually a song was already written and arranged before you went into the studio to record it in order to save costs. When recording A Day in the Life, the sound engineer Geoff Emerick knew in advance that this song would require a lot of overdubs.Therefore, with wise foresight, he recorded all instruments together on one track. Only John Lennon's vocals got their own track. So there were two more tracks available for overdubbing. John's voice was underlaid with an echo effect. Geoff Emerick writes about it: I underlay it with a rich effect that he called his Elvis Echo. John loved Hall in his headphones. Make it so that I don't sound like myself, he always said. 23 Mel Evans was then seated at the piano to count the 24 bars in the middle of the song. Coincidentally, there was also an alarm clock on the piano, which Eans set to ring at the beginning of these 24 bars. This alarm clock can still be heard on the final recording. George Martin describes this in his book Summer of Love as follows: We still had to add the middle section to the song, so we also put our roadie, Mal Evans, on this fourth track. His job was to count down the 24 bars that were still empty in the middle of A Day in the Life. 24 George Martin also ordered that George Harrison and Ringo Starr should swap instruments on this recording, since Ringo, who then played the maracas, had the better timing. After these recordings were finished, one thought about how the middle section should be designed. Finally, you use an unfinished composition or sketch that Paul McCartney discovered in his notepad. Paul had written a fragment of the song that John really liked: Woke up, fell out of bed, dragged a comb across my head. So it was agreed to make this verse 23 Emerick, You Make the Beatles !, George Martin and William Pearson, Beatles: Summer of Love. How Sgt.Pepper came about (Berlin: Henschel Verlag, 1997),
23 use. 25 Ironically, this text passage fits exactly with the ringing of the alarm clock described above. In a further session a few days later, the decision was made as to what should be done musically in the 24 free bars. John Lennon came up with the idea of adding a sound that started out tiny and then got bigger and bigger until it finally superimposed everything. 26 George Martin and the responsible sound engineers tried to musically implement this somewhat abstract idea or sound concept. It was decided to hire only half a symphony orchestra because of the high costs. George Martin was then also commissioned to compose the orchestral arrangement on the instructions of the Beatles. It was certainly difficult for George Martin to translate the imprecise guidelines of the Beatles into precise musical notation. The Beatles wanted the orchestra to just improvise. The sound engineer Geoff Emerick writes: I think it would be great if we asked the musicians in the orchestra to play randomly, suggested Paul. 27 George Martin implemented this vague requirement by noting a glissando from the lowest to the highest note for each orchestral instrument. Since the song should be the last on the album, the Beatles were looking for a grand finale. After all, Paul McCartney delighted everyone with his idea of playing the final chord on as many pianos as possible at the same time. So all the grand pianos and pianos available in the studio were brought into one room in order to then play this chord as loudly as possible. To do this, George Martin and a technician also had to hammer the keys. This voluminous sound forms the worthy conclusion to A Day in the Life and the entire album. Summary Working method George Martin George Martin often intervenes in the arrangements of the songs in his role as producer. Due to his successful collaboration with the Beatles, he is often referred to as the fifth Beatle. He does not write various instrument arrangements (e.g. for strings or an entire orchestra) but rather plays the piano himself on some of the Beatles' recordings. Furthermore, he does not influence the sound by deciding how it will be recorded, but rather who on 25 Ibid. 26 Emerick, you make the Beatles !, ibid.,
24 which instrument records what. The mixing itself, however, is done by others for him. In summary, it can be said that George Martin, as a producer, tends to take on the tasks of arranger, musician and organizer, but not those of the sound engineer or mixer. Eddie Kramer Picture 6 - Eddie Kramer 28 Eddie Kramer was born on April 19, 1941 in Cape Town, South Africa. There he studied classical piano, cello and violin at the South African College of Music. At a young age he also began to be interested in jazz. At the age of 19 he moved to England. There he recorded with local jazz bands in his home studio and started working for Pye Studios. There he took on artists as diverse as Sammy Davis Jr. or The Kinks, and Eddie Kramer set up his own KPS Studios, which Regent Sound bought out after less than a year because of their success and good reputation. Eddie Kramer was then commissioned to oversee the construction of their new fourtrack studios. The next studio Eddie Kramer worked for was Olympic Sound Studios. This is where his collaboration began 28 JBL_EddieKramer.jpg (JPEG graphic, pixels) - Scaled (79%), accessed September 23, 2014, 23
25 with Jimi Hendrix. In 1968 Eddie Kramer started working for the Record Plant studio in New York. There he produced, among other things, Electric Ladyland, the third studio album by Jimi Hendrix, Eddie Kramer became independent of the studios and produced albums by Jonny Winter and Led Zeppelin, among others. The cooperation with Led Zeppelin was expanded to include a total of five albums, i.e. half of Led Zeppelin's studio albums, thanks to the good response. In the same year Eddie Krämer was also commissioned to record the sound for the legendary Woodstock Festival, both for the festival and for the film about the festival. He was commissioned by Jimi Hendrix to build the studio that was technically best equipped at the time. Construction was always slow and costly, but after 13 months the Electric Lady Studios were ready, and Eddie Kramer was their director from 1970 to 1974. During this time he produced, in addition to the posthumously published works by Jimi Hendrix, including Peter Frampton and Carly Simon, Eddie Kramer left the Electric Lady Studios to work with what was probably the largest rock band at the time, KISS. In addition to several KISS albums, he produced Led Zeppelin, Peter Frampton and the Rolling Stones, among others. He also wrote books about Jimi Hendrix, in which especially studio work is discussed. Jimi Hendrix Johnny Allen Hendrix was born on November 27, 1942 in Renton near Seattle. Since his mother Lucille took very little care of the child due to an illness, the father Al Hendrix took the then three-year-old and changed his name to James Marshall Hendrix. This then resulted in Jimi Hendrix. At the age of five, Jimi Hendrix received his first acoustic guitar from his father. At that time he was listening to records from Muddy Waters, B.B. King and Chuck Berry. These influences can also be heard later in his music. He began his career with appearances in rhythm and blues bands () he went on tour as an accompanist with Little Richard, for a short time he was employed by Ike & Tina Turner, he was on stage with his own band Jimmy James and The Blue Flames . Interestingly, Jimi Hendrix did not become famous and successful at first in his 29 ABOUT, accessed 23 September 2014, 30 Cf.:Olsen, The Encyclopedia of Record Producers,
26 home, the US, but in London, England. The music manager Chandler, then bass player for The Animals, discovered him in 1966 and brought Jimi Hendrix to England. He hired accompanying musicians Mitch Mitchell (drums) and Noel Redding (bass guitar) for him and invested £ 5,000 in promoting the Jimi Hendrix Experience. 31 It was only after a few concerts in England and the ensuing success that Jimi Hendrix appeared in the USA. Protected by the ex-Animals bassist Chas Chandler, he went to England and founded the Jimi Hendrix Experience together with Mitchell and Redding. This trio toured the clubs of the European continent over the years and conquered the top of the English charts with songs like Hey Jo, The wind cries Mary, Purple Haze and Foxy Lady. After returning to the USA, he played at the Monterey Pop Festival (1967) and the legendary Woodstock Festival (1969). His interpretation of The Star Spangled Banner, alluding to the Vietnam War, moved many hearts who shared his opinion. In this interpretation, Jimi Hendrix mimicked the sound of machine gun salvos and falling bombs with his guitar, expressing the general attitude of young people towards this war at the time. During his lifetime, the Jimi Hendrix Experience only released three studio albums: Are you Experienced? (1967), Axis: Bold as Love (1967) and Electric Ladyland (1968). In addition, concert recordings and, especially after his death, countless recordings and greatest hits albums were released. His studio, the Electric Lady Studio, was completed while he was still alive, and it still exists today and enjoys an excellent reputation. Due to the upcoming costs for the studio, Jimi Hendrix had to tour constantly to make money. In addition, in mid-1968 he had separated from his manager Chas Chandler, who saw Jimi as an artist. So only Mike Jeffrey was responsible for the band. But this was a pure businessman and therefore only looking for profit. That's one of the reasons why Hendrix had to tour so much. As a result, he never came to rest, which is why his health deteriorated increasingly. Ultimately, Jimi Hendrix died in 1970 at the age of 28 from the effects of sleeping pills in St. Mary Abbot's Hospital in London, see Schmidt-Joos and Kampmann, Das neue Rowohlt Rock-Lexikon, see Lothar Trampert, Elektrisch! Jimi Hendrix: The musician behind the myth, 2. A. (Sonnentanz Verlag, 1998),
27 Eddie Kramer Bold As Love Figure 7 - Eddie Kramer in the studio with Jimi Hendrix 33 I would now like to describe the recording process of a song in order to work out the division of labor between artist and producer, in this case between Jimi Hendrix and Eddie Kramer. The song Bold as Love was recorded and completed on October 29, 1967 at Olympic Studios. It represents the grandiose finale of the second album Axis: Bold as Love. The song has several parts both lyrically and musically. And as is so often the case, the text by Jimi Hendrix can be interpreted in different ways. He has always been interested in science fiction. With regard to his song lyrics, the book Book of the Hopi by Frank Waters, which describes in detail the rituals, ceremonies, legends and religious worldview of the Hopi Indians, has probably the most influence. Parallels can be seen in the lyrics of the songs Red House and If 6 was 9. The same goes for the song Bold as Love. Jimi uses the earth's axis and compares it to love. The axis of the earth occurs in a similar way in the Book of the Hopi. But I think that he really only compares the axis of the earth with love. In an interview he himself says: 33 JP-HENDRIX-1-articleInline.jpg (JPEG graphic, pixels) - scaled (0%), accessed September 23, 2014, articleinline.jpg. 26
28 If it shifts, well, then maybe the entire surface of the earth changes every few thousand years. And it is the same with a person's love; if it hits deeply, then it will change him. It changed his whole life. So these two things have something in common 34. Another special feature of the text is the change from the third to the first person between the first and second stanza. This is followed by a guitar solo and then the song abruptly breaks off and the technically interesting and revolutionary part follows: Hendrix has had an underwater sound in his head for this last part since a dream. But neither Eddie Kramer nor the other sound engineers in the studio knew how to produce this sound. Until a certain George Chkiantz, another Olympic sound engineer who mainly concentrated on the technique of tape loops and tape echoes, discovered phasing by chance or practically invented it. Phasing is the effect that repeats a signal with a time delay. 35 However, this delay does not remain constant, but is constantly varied. At the time of recording, this jet sound effect was created by sending a signal to two tape recorders and recording the combined outputs on another tape machine, changing the speed of one of the two input tape recorders and changing the frequency structure ( EQ) of the audio signal varied. This discovery was made more or less in parallel, because it also occurred when the Beatles recorded for the LP Sgt. Pepper ś. This effect begins after the song abruptly breaks off on the drums, which begins with a brilliant fill. 36 Based on this song and its creation process, the collaboration between producer and artist can be understood very well. In this case, Eddie Kramer mostly only takes on the role of the sound engineer. Jimi Hendrix had already composed the song itself and the musical arrangement or had already finished it in his head. Eddie Kramer answered the question And Jimi had also written the wonderful lyrics beforehand, right? with of course, my friend. You have to understand: Jimi planned everything meticulously, even if it sometimes looks like a casual jam from a distant point of view. He 34 Caesar Glebbeek and Harry Shapiro, Jimi Hendrix, Electric Gypsy. Die Biographie (Vgs, 1993), United Soft Media Verlag GmbH, Rockmusik-Lexikon, n.d. 36 John McDermott, Eddie Kramer, and Billy Cox, Jimi Hendrix. Sessions: The complete studio sessions (Edition Olms, 1996). 27
29 had really figured out everything in advance. 37 Nevertheless, Eddie Kramer has a greater influence than that of the sound engineer, because precisely this use of phasing as an effect, as described above, creates an important aesthetic, tonal and thus also structural component of the song. With many other artists, effects and sound are not really part of the song, but a kind of accessory or gimmick of the sound engineer so that the song sounds better. These artists do not take care of these details during the recording process, but leave this to the sound engineers who only add these effects when the songs are mixed. It was different with Jimi Hendrix. He always had certain ideas and conceptions of sound in his head, which Eddie Kramer then had to implement. Eddie Kramer describes this collaboration aptly: He described the sounds he wanted, like colors, like timbres a comprehensive esoteric vocabulary in the sense of spaces. There is no more effective way of dealing with sound, because that's the way I work. 38 Summary Working method Eddie Kramer Eddie Kramer is primarily a sound engineer and mixer. In his collaboration with Jimi Hendrix, however, other qualities can also be recognized in his role as a producer. So he has a feel for turning Hendrix's vague ideas about sound into reality. In doing so, he let his creativity run free and did not shy away from unconventional and previously never tested recording techniques. 37 Gero Probst, special! Jimi Hendrix, Electric Ladyland & Eddie Kramer, Guitar & Bass, No. 12/2008 (no year): Trampert, Electric! Jimi Hendrix,
30 Phil Spector Figure 8 - Phil Spector in Studio 39 Phil Spector was born on December 26, 1940 in New York. At the age of 17 the single "To Know Him Is To Love Him" by his band "The Teddy Bears" was sold over a million times. It was the first song he wrote and produced himself. Phil Spector has been working as a producer since the age of 20, when he was already working as an A&R Manger (a kind of talent scout) for the record company Atlantic Records. After this activity Spector began to develop his Wall of Sound. He worked with a wide variety of musicians (e.g. Hal Blaine, Larry Knechtel, Steve Douglas, Sonny Bono) and thus refined his recording technique. In 1962 he founded his own record company, the so-called Phillies Label. Under this label he produced more than 20 number one hits with artists such as The Crystals, Darlene Love, Bobb B. Soxx and the Ronettes. In 1966 he closed his label again. The reason for this was the relative failure of Spector's biggest production to date: The Song River Deep, Mountain High by Ike and Tina Turner. This song only reached number 88 in the American charts. After what he saw as a flop, he took a break as a producer for a few years. It wasn't until the 1970s that he started working again as a producer. Since then he has produced artists such as the Beatles (both their solo artist and the band), Leonard Cohen and the Ramones phil-spector-studio_240.jpg (JPEG graphic, pixels) - scaled (0%), accessed September 23 2014, 40 See: Olsen, The Encyclopedia of Record Producers,
31 George Harrisson Figure 9 - George Harrison 41 George Harrison (born February 25, 1943 in Liverpool, England; died November 29, 2001 in Los Angeles, California). The youngest member of the Beatles has always been overshadowed by John Lennon and Paul McCartney. Although endowed with considerable compositional talent (Don't Bother Me, I Need You and If I Needed Someone), his songs pale in view of the tremendous output of his colleagues. Instead, Harrison honed his unique, Carl Perkins modeled guitar playing; and he was responsible for the implementation of the zither in pop music (see song Norwegian Wood).Harrison's crush on India was the first sign of his growing independence, and his three contributions to Revolver, most notably Taxman and I Want to Tell You, indicated his musical maturation. The Indian influence drew 41 george-harrison_001.jpg (JPEG graphic, pixels) - scaled (0%), accessed 23 September 2014, 30
32 continues in the pensive Within You, Without You on Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. He showed his ambitions as a solo artist first with the film music-like Wonderwall and the trivial Electronic Sounds. He cemented his position as a songwriter with the majestic While My Guitar Gently Weeps (with his good friend Eric Clapton on guitar) and the song Something. The latter sold over two million times as a single in 1969. It became the second most recorded Beatles song (after Yesterday), and prompted Frank Sinatra to say it was the greatest love song ever written. Harrison also produced for Billy Preston, Jackie Lomax and Radha Krishna Temple, while also performing on the Delaney and Bonnie tour before starting work on the album All Things Must Pass. This three-album set contained material that had accumulated over the years, including high-quality compositions such as Awaiting On You All, I d Have You Anytime and Beware Of Darkness. However, these have been dwarfed by My Sweet Lord. It cleverly combined melody and mantra and deservedly rose to the top of the British and American charts. The luster faded, however, after the editors of the 1964 chiffon Hit She's so fine successfully sued for plagiarism years later. All Things Must Pass is widely regarded as the best post-Beatles solo project, a fact that arguably made up for Harrison for years in the shadow of Lennon and McCartney. Harrison's next project, the single Bangla-Desh, came about in response to musician Ravi Shankar's call to fight the famine in India. In August 1971, benefit concerts with Harrison, Dylan, Preston, Eric Clapton and Leon Russell were held at New York's Madison Square Garden, which in turn resulted in a film and a boxing set. Litigation corrupted Harrison's altruism, and it wasn't until 1973 that he resumed new material. While All Things Must Pass came up with the support of Derek and the Dominoes, Badfinger and producer Phil Spector, Living In The Material World was much simpler and less peppy. Nonetheless, the album reached number one in the US, as did the single Give Me Love (Give Me Peace On Earth), but the critical response was muted. A disastrous US tour preceded Dark Horse, whose title was inspired by Harrison's new record company. The album reflected his crisis after divorcing Patti Boyd, and remains his artistic low. He rehabilitated himself with Extra Texture, despite bad reviews, but the fact that the strongest track was from 1971 didn't turn out to be 31
33 overlooked. Thirty Three & 1/3 and George Harrison continued the upward trend with This Song, Love Comes To Everyone, Not Guilty and the underrated Blow Away '. The latter album was very lively, but the quality lagged behind its recordings from the 1970s. During this time Harrison came into contact with his personal hero, comedian group Monty Python, to produce the 1979 film Life of Brian. His funding for the film guaranteed its success, and a long-lasting relationship with the group resulted in his record company's parent company, Warner Brothers Records, rejecting the first version of Somewhere in England because they thought it was below par. The rework included All Those Years Ago, Harrison's homage to the murdered John Lennon, with the help of Paul McCartney and Ringo Starr. The song reached number two in the US, but this was more due to the subject matter than the artist. Gone Troppo was released with minimal public relations and it was rumored that this would be the end of Harrison's work in the recording studio. He pursued other interests, mainly with his company Handmade Films, and produced films such as Life Of Brian, The Long Good Friday (1980), Time Bandits (1981), Water (1985), A Private Function (1985), Mona Lisa (1986 ), Shanghai Surprise (1986) and Withnail And I (1987). Harrison only occasionally contributed to the soundtracks. During this time Harrison pursued two hobbies that took up much of his time and that he developed a great passion for: car racing and gardening. However, he went back to the studio to fulfill various, low-profile requests, including Mike Batt's adaptation of The Hunting if the Sharks and a benefit album for Greenpeace. In honor of Carl Perkins, he took part with various stars on the television program Blue Suede Shoe and began work on a new album that he produced with Jeff Lynne. The effort paid off the following year when Harrison's version of James Ray's hit Got My Mind Set On You went number two in the UK and number one in the US. Thanks to Lynne's flair for commercialism, the intentionally Beatles-influenced When We Was Fab and Cloud Nine became successful singles. With the release, Harrison fulfilled his contracts and rehabilitated himself financially, but his impromptu live performances gave the impression that his passion for music was rekindled. This revitalization also led to Harrison's pivotal role in the Traveling Wilburys, a 'supergroup' made up of Harrison, Lynne, Dylan, Tom Petty and Roy Orbison. Orbison's death prevented it from continuing after two excellent albums. 32
34 Harrisons toured Japan for the first time in many years with longtime friend Eric Clapton. He reappeared on stage for a one-off benefit concert in April, and the British press took pleasure in reporting financial difficulties due to numerous entrepreneurial ventures and poor financial advice from Harrison. With the reunification of the Beatles in 1995 on the occasion of the anthology series, all speculation about his destitution disappeared. He also received $ 6 million in January from a lawsuit with Denis O'Brien for failure to run his financial deals. 42 Wall of Sound and collaboration with George Harrisson Figure 10 - Phil Spector with George Harrison 43 Phil Spector is best known for his Wall of Sound recording technology. With this he tried to find a way to make music sound better on the radio. Because so far he was dissatisfied with this sound. In his opinion, all instruments would perish in favor of the voice. To solve this problem, Phil Spector used classical instrumentation techniques. For example, instead of recording in a common rock band line-up (such as 1x vocals, 1x guitar, 1x bass, 1x drums, 1x keyboards), he used a multiple number of instrument parts to create such a dense sound, the so-called wall of sound, which the Voice plays around and does not disappear in the background. Mark Wigmore describes this as follows: 42 See: Colin Larkin, ed., Harrison, George, Encyclopedia of Popular Music, undated, ha. 43 pete_bennett-phil_spector-george_harrison.jpg (JPEG graphic, pixels) - scaled (0%), accessed September 23, 2014, 33
35 In the early 60s, legendary producer Phil Spector listened to music the same way everyone did on AM radio. But he wasn't satisfied with the sound quality. So he devised a plan to make music on the radio sound better. Spector's idea was to take a classical music approach to pop music. He would assemble large groups of musicians in the studio. If an orchestra might have ten violinists, why not put together a pop band with ten guitarists? To get the big sound he was looking for, he'd have the guitars, the bass, the horns and string players all play the same thing at the same time. He'd also overdub again and again, adding more and more layers. Then he'd drench everything in reverb, or echo effect. He called the finished product 'the wall of sound'. Spector found that the music of most songs was often lost when listening on AM radio - that all he heard in some cases was the vocal. So he chose to bury the vocals on his recordings deep into the mix of the ocean of instruments he recorded. 44 Bill Herald describes the technique as follows: Spector refined and perfected his unique Wall of Sound at Gold Star Studios in Los Angeles, and the technique featured extensive use of electric, acoustic and flamenco guitars, drums, castinets, crashing pianos and numerous overdubbings. His studio group often consisted of as many as three drummers, bassists, keyboardists, several guitarists, a string orchestra and brass section. The studio sounds were played through speakers and reverberated throughout the room before being picked up by the microphones. The echo-laden sounds were then channeled back to the control room, where they were taperecorded. 45 This recording technology, which was new at the time and aimed at making instruments sound on an equal footing with the voice, is often mentioned as the recording studio's first use as an instrument: 44 Rear-View Mirror: The Secrets behind Phil Spector's Wall of Sound CBC Music - Free Streaming Radio, Videos, Songs, Concerts & Playlists, CBC Music, accessed August 28, 2014, 45 Bill HeraldOldies Pop Music Examiner, A look at the best of Phil Spector's fabulous Wall of Sound recordings, Examiner.com, March 30 2013, 34
36 Characterized by bombastic, reverberating instruments which constantly threatened to drown out the vocals, the wall of sound was one of the first attempts to use the recording studio as an instrument in its own right. 46 Furthermore, Peter Wicke describes Phil Spector's production technique as follows: Furthermore, Spector's productions are characterized by elaborate instrumentation and the doubling of instruments that are normally only used once. As an echo or reverberation chamber, he used a room equipped with loudspeakers and microphones, in which the signal was multiplied by natural reflections. He himself described his products as little symphonies for the kids. 47 The collaboration between Phil Spector and George Harrison on his solo album All Things must pass is characterized by the use of Wall of Sound technology. In addition to many instruments stacked on top of one another, Spector also makes massive use of the reverb effect. Peter Martinus defines natural reverb as follows: Natural reverb is the generic term for diffuse sound. In a room, it is created by reflections of a sound signal on the walls. In the studio, reverb is generated almost exclusively by digital processors. 48 Andrew Gilbert writes about this album in a review: The work of Phil Spector was fascinating: while he was making minimally instrumentalized, emotional records with Lennon in the early 1970s, he simultaneously continued the Abbey Road path with Harrison's post-Beatles debut in which he further refined his Wall of Sound technique. Phil Spector's Wall of Sound, BBC, April 14, 2009, 47 Wicke, Ziegenrücker, und Ziegenrücker, Handbook of Popular Music. 48 Peter Martinus, Lexikon Recording: The comprehensive reference work for studio and recording. Over 2000 entries with specific practical tips, 1st edition (PPV MEDIEN (8344), 2008), Robert Dimery, 1001 albums: Music that you should hear before life is over. Selected and presented by 90 international reviewers (Zurich: Edition Olms, 2007),
37 The producer in classical music In the field of classical music, the producer usually has somewhat different tasks than a producer of popular music. He is less involved in the actual work or in the recording process, but rather responsible for more structural, organizational processes. Hans Hirsch, an audio producer who worked with Herbert von Karajan, among others, describes it as follows: What are the most important tasks of a record producer? For the artists who are already under contract, the main task is to create a realistic schedule and to organize the agreed recordings, i.e. H. to find and rent a suitable hall, to clarify legal issues with the publishers and, in the case of major projects (operas, large choral works), to discuss the soloists and choirs with the respective conductor and to negotiate and conclude appropriate contracts; After the end of the recordings, for which his personal presence is not required in every case, is above all for the timely completion of the recorded tapes (taking into account any release rights of the artists involved) and of attractive record bags including comments (in cooperation with the advertising department and editing) responsible. Creative skills are less in demand with all of this, it is more about the reliable implementation of the plans agreed at the time, for which the comparison with the tasks of a midwife has become natural. 50 Furthermore, it makes a big difference for the conductor whether he is conducting a concert, a rehearsal or a studio recording. Especially with studio recordings, since there is a producer in addition to the conductor, the field of work and the way of working seem to shift. Recording Producers are more akin to theater directors. They have the score in front of them and they direct operations from a control box. While it seems that a producer can offer little musical advice to a great artist, translating a performance into a recording requires special skills. Unlike an actor using a script uniquely tailored for the cinema (a screenplay) conductors come to the studio having usually performed a work 50 Herbert von Karajan () Buch. Book. (Salzburg; Vienna; Munich: Pustet, 2008),
38 only on stage. They need help adjusting the audio perspective and shaping tempos, balance, and dynamics to match the recording medium. In other cases, where a conductor has never performed the work, the producer becomes more of a director with a view on expression and interpretation. The producer is a facilitator, translating the stage-drama to the aural equivalent of cinema, but a good producer is also a sounding board with musical views and experience in all stages of the process. 51 Working method Producer Producer Mixer Musician Arranger Special features Rick Rubin No No No Business connoisseur Good hearing & feel for sound, song and artist George No Yes Yes Orchestration specialist Martin Eddie Kramer Yes No Yes Sound arranger Creative sound engineer and mixer Phil Spector Yes Yes Yes Songwriter Wall of Sound Table 1 Overview of the producers' working method Table 1 summarizes the different characteristics and working methods of the producers discussed briefly and concisely. Here it becomes clear which different tasks and approaches a producer can have in his work. So play musical. Social and technical skills play a major role, but they are not absolutely necessary. It was also made clear that the producers rarely work entirely alone. A team of sound engineers, musicians, etc. is usually available to you. 51 Jose Antonio Bowen, The Cambridge Companion to Conducting (Cambridge [et al.]: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003) .p.35 37
39 Different working methods of conductors In the following I will introduce four conductors and outline their conducting style and their understanding of sound and sound. Herbert von Karajan Figure 11 Karajan 52 Herbert von Karajan (born April 5, 1908 in Salzburg, died July 16, 1989 in Anif) studied piano and conducting at the Salzburg Mozarteum and the Vienna Music Academy. From 1927 to 1934 he was theater music director in Ulm, and from 1934 to 1941 general music director in Aachen. Since 1937 he has also directed concerts at the State Opera and the Philharmonic in Berlin, and in 1941 became director of the Staatskapelle. After World War II he went to Vienna, where he became director of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde Wien in 1949. With the Vienna Philharmonic and the Philharmonia Orchestra London he went on concert tours all over the world and worked as a conductor, later also as a director, at festivals in Salzburg, Munich, Berlin, Edinburgh and Lucerne as well as at La Scala in Milan. Karajan's 52 karajan300-f102fa1c0330ce83a6b174c70bb7ec153b4792be-s3-c85.jpg (JPEG graphic, pixels) - scaled (0%), accessed September 23, 2014, 38
40 Enthusiasm for technology and all forms of media. In 1954 he succeeded Wilhelm Furtwängler as conductor "for life" with the Berliner Philharmoniker. However, he resigned from this position in 1989. From 1954 to 1956 he also directed the Vienna State Opera, where he mainly performed Wagner, Verdi and Strauss operas. Karajan joined in the 1960s. as a conductor and director especially at the Salzburg Festival, of which he was artistic director. Prominent performances there were Don Giovanni by W.A. Mozart (1961; 1968), Elektra by R. Strauss, Boris Godunow by M. Mussorgski, Carmen by G. Bizet (), Otello and Don Carlos by G. Verdi (1970; 1976). Since 1967 Karajan has also organized Easter and Whitsun festivals with the Berlin Philharmonic in Salzburg. As early as 1969 he founded the Herbert von Karajan Foundation to promote young international conductors, the world youth orchestra and research. This deals with research, among other things, on acoustics, interpretation and reception history. 53 Conducting style Karajan has always been interested in recording technology. In his documentary Herbert Karajan The Second Life, director Eric Schulz sheds light on Karajan's relationship to recordings and recording studios. For Karajan, the overall sound and how the audience perceives it was very important. He often quarreled with concert halls, as everyone in the audience there perceives a different overall sound. This is of course due to the room acoustics, which vary at each seat in a concert hall. Karajan says: The hall manipulates the music.54 Peter Andry describes Karajan's way of working on recordings as follows: The last session began. The entire opera was recorded with the exception of the overture. Only fifteen minutes of recording time was left, and in Communist East Germany finishing times were strictly observed. Karajan was unmoved. Totally relaxed, he was leaning on the conductor s rostrum talking to the violins. Anderson by now was desperate. He advanced purposefully toward the maestro. Karajan at once turned, swung himself on to the podium and, just as the engineers were scrambling to turn on the tape, he brought his baton down to unleash the orchestra. Ever the judge of the right moment, 53 Cf. Das Großes Metzler Musiklexikon 3.0. Article: Herbert von Karajan 54 Eric Schulz, Herbert von Karajan - The Second Life (Universal / Music / DVD, 2013). 39
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