How can you cut DNA

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Concept cards

Gene probe:

Short single strands of DNA used to trace DNA sequences. They are provided with a marker molecule (e.g. fluorescent dye, ...) that enables them to be found later.

Restriction enzymes:

Are bacterial enzymes that can cut DNA at very defined positions (base sequences).
They are also known as restriction endonucleases. They are used by bacteria to defend themselves against viral DNA.
Examples: EcoRI; HindIII, BamHI

Sticky ends:

Sticky ends are short single-stranded ends (sticky ends) of a DNA double-stranded molecule that are created by cutting a DNA with appropriate restriction enzymes or by synthesis (then referred to as “linkers”). They can be stored together and stabilized via H-bridges.

palindrome

A palindrome (gr. Running backwards) in genetics is a DNA sequence that shows the same base sequence on both strands of a DNA double strand in one direction (for example 5'-3 '). Many restriction enzymes have a palindrome as a recognition and cutting sequence.

vector

"Vehicle" that transfers DNA into a cell (e.g. a plasmid, a virus ...)

Ligase

An enzyme that binds strands of DNA together. For example, it links the DNA fragments associated with sticky ends and hydrogen bonds to form a circular plasmid.

transformation

The process by which naked DNA is introduced into ready-to-receive bacterial cells.

Recombinant DNA

This is the name given to an artificial DNA molecule that has been reassembled with the help of genetic engineering methods - cutting with restriction enzymes and assembly using sticky ends and ligases. The generated DNA can come from different organisms.
Example: plasmid

Marker genes (markers)

This usually describes short, precisely localizable DNA sequences in a larger DNA molecule. These can also be complete genes that are used to select and identify those cells that have been successfully recombined.
Example: ampicillin resistance gene; β-galactosidase gene


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