How did they worship the gods

The Egyptian gods

The Egyptian cult of gods is characterized by a multitude of deities. The most important of them is the sun god Re. Not only were gods worshiped, but amulets, hybrids and animals were also worshiped.

The first religious ideas are already in the 4th millennium. v. Chr. Present. These are characterized by the fact that divine powers are worshiped in the form of animals and amulets as well as talismans. Something around 3000 BC BC people are also venerated. However, they have a changed nature, because an animal skull is placed in the place of their head. They appear in the form of a hybrid of human body and animal head. An example of this is the ram-headed Amun and the falcon-headed Horus.

The sun god has the highest rank

Around 2900 BC More gods appear little by little. Among them: about 25-30 cm tall and an infinite number of small deities. The sun god Re and the state god Amun-Re occupy the highest rank. This multitude of gods can be explained by the fact that more and more deities with originally locally limited importance were accepted into the community of gods.

In order to represent all important deities in their fullness, they are arranged in threes, so-called triads, and in ninths. One possibility of representation is the unity of the gods in the sun city of Heliopolis. According to this, the primordial god Atum created the pair of gods Schu and Tefnut by exhaling air and spitting out moisture.

Another attempt is the classification of the gods in an eighth form: four pairs of gods humanize the primordial powers. The primeval waters embody Nun and Naunet, the endlessness Huh and Hauhet, the darkness Kuk and Kauket and the invisibility Amun and Amaunet.

Gods not immortal

Not only people but also the gods grow older and die. Osiris embodies the fate of the gods in a special way. He was dismembered by his brother Seth and died. With his wife Isis he fathered Horus after his death.

The sun god Re: god of gods

The sun god Re has been at the head of all Egyptian deities since the Old Kingdom. He becomes the god of the empire of Egypt and the father of kings who have since been able to call themselves "son of Re".

His creative powers are above all knowledge, also called Sia, and the claim to will, which is called Hu.

The main sanctuary of Re is the sun temple "House of the Sun". It is located in the sunny city of Heliopolis in Lower Egypt.

According to the myth, Re begins his journey across the sky in the morning with his morning barge, a golden sun ship with three masts. In the evening he changes to his evening barge and begins his nightly journey through the underworld.

Osiris: dismembered by brother

Osiris means something like "seat of the eye". He is a fertility and king god. He has also been considered the god of the dead since the Old Kingdom. As such, he judges the dead at the judgment of the dead and rules in the realm of the dead. The younger Osiris myth describes the fate of Osiris' death as follows: Osiris is murdered by his hostile brother Seth. Seth dismembered his body, scattered it across the land and threw it into the sea. Osiris' wife Isis looks for the individual parts of the body and enlivens them.

The center of the Osiris cult is the city of the dead Abydos in Upper Egypt. Annually, mystery games took place in Abydos, in which the death and resurrection of Osiris were depicted.

Together with his sister and wife Isis, he became the father of Horus.

Isis: On the run from her brother-in-law

Isis, also called Ese, is the sky goddess, mother and ruler goddess. She is the sister and wife of the god Osiris and the mother of Horus. She receives Horus when she sits on her dead husband Osiris in the shape of a sparrow. In the swamps of the Nile Delta she gives birth to Horus in a hiding place from her brother-in-law Seth.

The goddess is represented with the Horus child on her lap. So she appears as a prototype of the Christian Mary with the baby Jesus.

Horus: Maimed his uncle in revenge

The falcon-headed Horus is the son of Osiris and Isis. As a youth he avenges his murdered father. He loses an eye while fighting with his uncle Seth. He mutilates Seth, emerges victorious from this battle and takes control of Upper and Lower Egypt. From now on the Egyptian kings sit on his throne as his successors. Horus reveals himself in the person of the king. He is considered to be the "God incarnate" in every king. That is why each of the kings bears the title Horus.

Shu and Tefnut: Adam and Eve of the Egyptians

Schu and his sister and wife Tefnut are the first pair of gods. They were created by the god Atum. Shu is the god of air, Tefnut the goddess of moisture. Shu has the task of keeping the sky and the earth apart through air. Heaven and earth emerge from Schu and Tefnut: when the air layer of the Schu penetrates between the earth god Geb and his wife Nut, the world is created.

These two brought forth the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut, whose children are Osiris and Seth.